Genomic profiling of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
ABSTRACT Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous disease comprising multiple subtypes with different genetic alterations and responses to therapy. Recent genome-wide profiling studies of ALL have identified a number of novel genetic alterations that target key cellular pathways in lymphoid growth and differentiation and are associated with treatment outcome. Notably, genetic alteration of the lymphoid transcription factor gene IKZF1 is a hallmark of multiple subtypes of ALL with poor prognosis, including BCR-ABL1-positive lymphoid leukemia and a subset of 'BCR-ABL1-like' ALL cases that, in addition to IKZF1 alteration, harbor genetic mutations resulting in aberrant lymphoid cytokine receptor signaling, including activating mutations of Janus kinases and rearrangement of cytokine receptor-like factor 2 (CRLF2). Recent insights from genome-wide profiling studies of B-progenitor ALL and the potential for new therapeutic approaches in high-risk disease are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: While advances in genome sequencing technology make population-scale genomics a possibility, current approaches for analysis of this data rely upon parallelization strategies that have limited scalability, complex implementation and lack reproducibility. Churchill, a balanced regional parallelization strategy, overcomes these challenges, fully automating the multiple steps required to go from raw sequencing reads to variant discovery. Through implementation of novel deterministic parallelization techniques, Churchill allows computationally efficient analysis of a high-depth whole genome sample in less than two hours. The method is highly scalable, enabling full analysis of the 1000 Genomes raw sequence dataset in a week using cloud resources. http://churchill.nchri.org/.Genome Biology 01/2015; 16(1):6. DOI:10.1186/s13059-014-0577-x · 10.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The identification of oncogenic 'driver' mutations and activated survival pathways in selected aggressive B-cell malignancies directs the development of novel adjunctive therapies using targeted small molecule inhibitors. With a focus on diffuse large B-cell lymphoma 'not otherwise specified', Hodgkin lymphoma and childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, this review will provide an up-to-date account of the current literature on the development of new molecularly targeted treatment modalities for aggressive B-cell malignancies. Subclassification of B-cell malignancies depending on their particular genetic 'driver' lesions and transcriptional and/or signaling signatures has led to the development of targeted therapeutic approaches using small molecule inhibitors to amend current combination chemotherapy. Treatment outcome with current combination chemotherapy is still poor for subsets of aggressive B-cell malignancies, and demands development of targeted therapeutic approaches. Advanced gene expression profiling and genomic sequencing have revealed a more detailed landscape of recurrent alterations, allowing a better subclassification of B-cell lymphomas and leukemias. Many alterations directly or indirectly lead to activation of survival signaling pathways and expression of key oncoproteins and prosurvival molecules, including Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT), phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR), avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCLl-2). Small molecule inhibitors targeting these proteins and pathways are currently being tested in clinical trials and preclinically to improve chemotherapeutic regimes and treatment outcomes.Current opinion in hematology 05/2014; DOI:10.1097/MOH.0000000000000045 · 4.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative rescue-therapy for patients (pts) with chemotherapy-refractory acute leukaemia. Disease-control prior to HSCT is essential for long-term disease-free survival after HSCT.European Journal of Clinical Investigation 06/2014; DOI:10.1111/eci.12294 · 2.83 Impact Factor