The mechanical characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of poly(glycerol sebacate)-bioglass elastomeric composites.
ABSTRACT Biodegradable elastomeric materials have gained much recent attention in the field of soft tissue engineering. Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) is one of a new family of elastomers which are promising candidates used for soft tissue engineering. However, PGS has a limited range of mechanical properties and has drawbacks, such as cytotoxicity caused by the acidic degradation products of very soft PGS and degradation kinetics that are too fast in vivo to provide sufficient mechanical support to the tissue. However, the development of PGS/based elastomeric composites containing alkaline bioactive fillers could be a method for addressing these drawbacks and thus may pave the way towards wide clinical applications. In this study, we synthesized a new PGS composite system consisting of a micron-sized Bioglass filler. In addition to much improved cytocompatibility, the PGS/Bioglass composites demonstrated three remarkable mechanical properties. First, contrary to previous reports, the addition of microsized Bioglass increases the elongation at break from 160 to 550%, while enhancing the Young's modulus of the composites by up to a factor of four. Second, the modulus of the PGS/Bioglass composites drops abruptly in a physiological environment (culture medium), and the level of drop can be tuned such that the addition of Bioglass does not harden the composite in vivo and thus the desired compliance required for soft tissue engineering are maintained. Third, after the abrupt drop in modulus, the composites exhibited mechanical stability over an extended period. This latter observation is an important feature of the new composites, because they can provide reliable mechanical support to damaged tissues during the lag phase of the healing process. These mechanical properties, together with improved biocompatibility, make this family of composites better candidates than plastic and related composite biomaterials for the applications of tissue engineering.
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ABSTRACT: Fabrication of nonlinear elastic materials that resemble biological tissues remains a challenge in biomaterials research. Here, a new fabrication protocol to produce elastomeric fibrous scaffolds was established, using the core/shell electrospinning technique. A prepolymer of poly(xylitol sebacate) with a 2:5 mol ratio of xylitol:sebacic acid (PXS2:5) was first formulated, then co-electrospun with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA - 95,000 Mw). After cross-linking of core polymer PXS2:5, the PVA shells were rinsed off in water, leaving a porous elastomeric network of PXS2:5 fibres. Under aqueous conditions, the PXS2:5 fibrous scaffolds exhibited stable, nonlinear J-shaped stress-strain curves, with large average rupture elongation (76%) and Young's modulus (~1.0 MPa), which were in the range of muscle tissue. Rupture elongation of PXS2:5 was also much higher when electrospun, compared to 2D solid sheets (45%). In direct contact with cell monolayers under physiological conditions, PXS2:5 scaffolds were as biocompatible as those made of poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), with improvements over culture medium alone. In conclusion, the newly developed porous PXS2:5 scaffolds show tissue-like mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility, making them very promising for bioengineering of soft tissues and organs.Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials 09/2014; · 3.05 Impact Factor
- Bubble Science, Engineering & Technology. 11/2011; 3(2):34-47.
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ABSTRACT: Polyesters based on polyols and sebacic acid, known as poly(polyol sebacate)s (PPS), are attracting considerable attention, as their properties are potentially useful in the context of soft-tissue engineering applications. To overcome the drawback that PPSs generally display rather low strength and stiffness, we have pursued the preparation of nanocomposites based poly(mannitol sebacate) (PMS), a prominent example of this materials family, with cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). Nanocomposites were achieved in a two-step process. A soluble, low-molecular-weight PMS pre-polymer was formed via the polycondensation reaction between sebacic acid and D-mannitol. Nanocomposites with different CNC content were prepared by solution-casting and curing under vacuum using two different profiles designed to prepare materials with low and high degree of crosslinking. The as-prepared nanocomposites have higher stiffness and toughness than the neat PMS matrix while maintaining a high elongation at break. A highly crosslinked nanocomposite with a CNC content of 5 wt % displays a sixfold increase in Young's modulus and a fivefold improvement in toughness. Nanocomposites also exhibit a shape memory effect with a switch temperature in the range of 15 to 45 °C; in particular the materials with a thermal transition in the upper part of this range are potentially useful for biomedical applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2014Journal of Polymer Science Part A Polymer Chemistry 08/2014; · 3.54 Impact Factor