Computerized visuo-spatial memory test as a supplementary screening test for dementia.
ABSTRACT To prepare for a super-aging society, effective dementia screening tests are required. The most salient deficit appearing from the early stages of dementia/Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a deterioration in memory. The Hasegawa Dementia Scale-revised (HDS-R) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) are widely used in Japan to screen for dementia. Both place an emphasis on memory function, but neither examines visuo-spatial memory (VSM) function, even though VSM deficits are a sensitive marker for the detection of conversion to dementia. Furthermore, brief tests of VSM that are appropriate for screening have not been standardized. Thus, in the present study, we devised a brief, computer-aided short-term VSM test.
Sixty-six aged people were evaluated. Using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), it was found that 29 could be considered normal controls (NC; CDR 0), 10 had mild cognitive impairment (MCI; CDR 0.5), 15 had mild dementia (CDR 1), and 12 had moderate to severe dementia (CDR 2-3). The VSM test estimated how many locations each subject could memorize. Several numbered circles were shown on a monitor and subjects were required to memorize the location of these circles sequentially. After the numbers on the circles on the screen had disappeared, the subjects were required to indicate the circles in ascending order. A touch panel screen was used for this test to make it easier. The HDS-R was applied to subjects with MCI and dementia.
The mean (+/-SD) VSM score in subjects with MCI (5.70 +/- 0.96) was significantly lower than that in NC subjects (6.69 +/- 0.82), but significantly higher than that in subjects classified as CDR 1 (4.67 +/- 0.87). There was no significant difference in VSM scores between subjects classified as CDR 1 and CDR 2-3 (3.80 +/- 0.80). There was a moderate significant correlation between VSM and HDS-R scores.
In the present study, the VSM test detected differences in VSM function among NC subjects and subjects with MCI and mild dementia. The software program for the VSM test is distributed for free so that it can be widely used.
- SourceAvailable from: Alessandro Oronzo Caffò[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Spatial memory can be impaired in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). The present study investigates categorical spatial memory deficits using a virtual navigation-based reorientation task. Twenty-eight amnestic single domain and 23 amnestic multiple domain patients were compared with 53 healthy elderly controls on the performance of the virtual reorientation test (VReoT). The reorientation performance of participants in both aMCI groups was significantly worse than that of controls suggesting that VReoT detects spatial memory deficits. No significant difference emerged between the 2 groups of patients. A subsequent receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed that a score of 8 had a sensitivity of 80.4% and a specificity of 94.3% (area under the curve = 0.90). The VReoT seemed to be accurate in differentiating patients with aMCI from controls and may represent an evaluation supplement for spatial memory deficits in prodromal stages of Alzheimer's dementia.American Journal of Alzheimer s Disease and Other Dementias 08/2012; 27(5):321-30. · 1.52 Impact Factor