GB virus C infection among young, HIV-negative injection drug users with and without hepatitis C virus infection.
ABSTRACT Our study examined the association between GB virus C (GBV-C) and (i) hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection status, (ii) biomedical indicators of liver disease (alanine and aspartate aminotransferases) and (iii) HCV RNA level among young injection drug users (IDUs) recruited using street outreach and respondent-driven methods. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were completed. GBV-C (active or resolved) infection was significantly (P < 0.05) more prevalent among HCV antibody-positive (anti-HCV+) (65.1%) than antibody-negative (anti-HCV-) (32.3%) (OR = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.3-6.9) IDUs. The prevalence of resolved GBV-C infection was highest among those with chronic HCV infection (41.9%), followed by those with resolved HCV infection (34.4%) and significantly lower (P < 0.05) among anti-HCV participants (16.9%). Although not statistically significant (P = 0.13), a similar pattern was observed for active GBV-C infection. No association between GBV-C infection status and biomedical indicators of liver disease or HCV RNA level over time was observed. In conclusion, GBV-C infection prevalence was higher among anti-HCV+ compared to anti-HCV- young IDUs, similar to prior studies among older populations. In particular, chronically HCV-infected young IDUs had an increased rate of GBV-C clearance.
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ABSTRACT: Background People coinfected with HIV and GB virus C (GBV-C) have lower mortality than HIV-positive individuals without GBV-C infection. HIV uses either of the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 for entry into CD4-positive cells. Longer survival in HIV-positive individuals is associated with high serum concentrations of ligands for CCR5 (RANTES [regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted] and macrophage inflammatory proteins [MIP] 1alpha and 1beta) and CXCR4 (stromal-derived factor [SDF-1]), and with decreased expression of CCR5 on lymphocytes. Methods Peripheral-blood mononuclear cells were coinfected with GBV-C and HIV, and HIV replication was monitored by measuring infectivity and HIV p24 antigen production. Chemokine secretion was measured by ELISA, chemokine-receptor expression by flow cytometry, and cellular chemokine mRNA expression by differential hybridisation. Findings GBV-C infection of peripheral-blood mononuclear cells resulted in decreased replication of both clinical and laboratory HIV strains that use either CCR5 or CXCR4 as their coreceptor. Inhibition was related to the dose and timing of the GBV-C infection. Expression of mRNA for RANTES, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and SDF-1 and secretion of the chemokines into culture supernatants were higher in GBV-C-infected cells than in mock-infected cells. The inhibitory effect of GBV-C on HIV replication was blocked by incubation with neutralising antibodies against the relevant chemokines, and surface expression of CCR5 was significantly lower in GBV-C-infected cells than in mock-infected cells. Interpretation GBV-C induces HIV-inhibitory chemokines and reduces expression of the HIV coreceptor CCR5 in vitro. This study provides insight into the epidemiological association between GBV-C infection and longer survival in HIV-infected individuals.The Lancet 07/2004; 363(9426):2040-6. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AIM:To detect infection rate of GBV-C/HGV in hepatitis C patients, to determine the methods of higher sensitivity and the primers of higher efficiency for GBV-C/HGV RNA detection and to study the dominant subtype and mutation of GBV-C/HGV.METHODS:Quantitative RT-PCR for detection pf HCV RNA concentration in serum samples, RT-nested PCR with two sets of primers for detection of GBV-C RNA, RT-PCR ELISA with two sets of primers for detection of HGV RNA, nucleotide sequence and putative amino acid sequence analysis.RESULTS:The positive rates of GBV-C RNA at the 5'-NCR and NS3 region in 211 serums amples from the patients with HCV infection were 31.8% and 22.8% respectively. The positive rates of HGV RNA at the 5'-NCR and NS5 region in the same samples were 47.9% and 31.8% respectively. The total positive rate of GBV-C/HGV RNA was as high as 55.5%. HCV copy numbers in the patients without GBV-C/HGV coinfection were statistically higher than that in the patients with GBV-C/HGV coinfection (P<0.01).Frequent mutation of nucleotide residue was present in the amplification products. Frameshift mutation was found in two samples with GBV-C NS3 region nucleotide sequences. All nucleotide sequences from amplification products showed higher homology to HGV genome than to GBV-C genome even though part of the sequences were amplified with GBV-C primers.CONCLUSION:A high frequency of GBV-C/HGV coinfection existed in the hepatitis C patients. RT-PCR ELISA was more sensitive than RT-nested PCR for detection of GBV-C/HGV RNA. The primers derived from the 5'-NCR was more efficient than those derived from the NS3 and NS5 regions. A reverse relationship was found to exist between HCV RNA concentration and GBV-C/HGV infection frequency. HGV was the dominant subtype of the virus in the local area. The major mutations of GBV-C/HGV genomes were random mutation of nucleotide residue.World Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2000; 6(6):833-841. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Because many persons with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are asymptomatic, population-based serologic studies are needed to estimate the prevalence of the infection and to develop and evaluate prevention efforts. We performed tests for antibody to HCV (anti-HCV) on serum samples from 21,241 persons six years old or older who participated in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted during 1988 through 1994. We determined the prevalence of HCV RNA by means of nucleic acid amplification and the genotype by means of sequencing. The overall prevalence of anti-HCV was 1.8 percent, corresponding to an estimated 3.9 million persons nationwide (95 percent confidence interval, 3.1 million to 4.8 million) with HCV infection. Sixty-five percent of the persons with HCV infection were 30 to 49 years old. Seventy-four percent were positive for HCV RNA, indicating that an estimated 2.7 million persons in the United States (95 percent confidence interval, 2.4 million to 3.0 million) were chronically infected, of whom 73.7 percent were infected with genotype 1 (56.7 percent with genotype 1a, and 17.0 percent with genotype 1b). Among subjects 17 to 59 years of age, the strongest factors independently associated with HCV infection were illegal drug use and high-risk sexual behavior. Other factors independently associated with infection included poverty, having had 12 or fewer years of education, and having been divorced or separated. Neither sex nor racial-ethnic group was independently associated with HCV infection. In the United States, about 2.7 million persons are chronically infected with HCV. People who use illegal drugs or engage in high-risk sexual behavior account for most persons with HCV infection.New England Journal of Medicine 09/1999; 341(8):556-62. · 51.66 Impact Factor