GB virus C infection among young, HIV-negative injection drug users with and without hepatitis C virus infection.
ABSTRACT Our study examined the association between GB virus C (GBV-C) and (i) hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection status, (ii) biomedical indicators of liver disease (alanine and aspartate aminotransferases) and (iii) HCV RNA level among young injection drug users (IDUs) recruited using street outreach and respondent-driven methods. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were completed. GBV-C (active or resolved) infection was significantly (P < 0.05) more prevalent among HCV antibody-positive (anti-HCV+) (65.1%) than antibody-negative (anti-HCV-) (32.3%) (OR = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.3-6.9) IDUs. The prevalence of resolved GBV-C infection was highest among those with chronic HCV infection (41.9%), followed by those with resolved HCV infection (34.4%) and significantly lower (P < 0.05) among anti-HCV participants (16.9%). Although not statistically significant (P = 0.13), a similar pattern was observed for active GBV-C infection. No association between GBV-C infection status and biomedical indicators of liver disease or HCV RNA level over time was observed. In conclusion, GBV-C infection prevalence was higher among anti-HCV+ compared to anti-HCV- young IDUs, similar to prior studies among older populations. In particular, chronically HCV-infected young IDUs had an increased rate of GBV-C clearance.
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ABSTRACT: GB virus C (GBV-C) infection is transmitted by blood exposure and associated with lower human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load and slower HIV disease progression. Few studies describe predictors of acute GBV-C infection following transfusion in HIV-infected patients. We used a limited-access database from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute's Viral Activation Transfusion Study, a randomized controlled trial of leukoreduced versus nonleukoreduced transfusions received by HIV-infected, transfusion-naive patients. Blood samples from 489 subjects were tested for GBV-C markers in pretransfusion and posttransfusion samples. We estimated the risk of acquiring GBV-C RNA and predictors of GBV-C acquisition, using pooled logistic regression. GBV-C RNA was detected ≤120 days following the first transfusion in 22 (7.5%) of 294 subjects who were GBV-C negative before transfusion. The risk of GBV-C RNA acquisition increased with each unit transfused (odds ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.11). Lower baseline HIV load and use of antiretroviral therapy were associated with subsequent GBV-C RNA acquisition, after control for units of blood transfused. Leukoreduced status of transfused units was not associated with GBV-C transmission. Blood transfusion is associated with a significant risk of GBV-C acquisition among HIV-infected patients. Transmission of GBV-C by blood transfusion was inversely related to HIV load.The Journal of Infectious Diseases 03/2012; 205(9):1436-42. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: GB virus C (GBV-C), a human virus of the Flaviviridae family that is structurally and epidemiologically closest to hepatitis C virus (HCV), has been reported to confer beneficial outcomes in HIV-positive patients. However, the prevalence of GBV-C in HIV-positive individuals in Indonesia is unknown. Since GBV-C is more prevalent in anti-HCV positive patients than in anti-HCV negative subjects, transmission of GBV-C and HCV could be by the same method. This study examined the prevalence and molecular characteristics of GBV-C infection in HIV patients in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The prevalence of GBV-C among HIV patients (n = 125, median age 31 years) based on the 5'UTR region was 111/125 (88.8%), including 39/48 (81.3%) and 72/77 (93.5%) HIV-infected patients with and without HCV infection, respectively. GBV-C isolates were of genotype 2a, 3 and 6 in 58.3%, 12.6% and 28.4% of patients, respectively. Patients with genotype 3 were significantly younger than those with genotypes 2a or 6 (P = 0.001 and P = 0.012, respectively). Genotypes 3 and 6 were significantly associated with injection drug use (P = 0.004 and P = 0.002, respectively) and HCV co-infection (P < 0.001 for both genotypes), indicating a shared transmission route with HCV. In conclusion, the prevalence of GBV-C among HIV-positive patients in Indonesia is high, and three genotypes were detected, namely genotype 2a, 3 and 6.Microbiology and Immunology 04/2013; 57(4):298-308. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: GB virus C (GBV-C) is a member of the Flaviviridae family and the most closely related human virus to HCV. However, GBV-C does not replicate in hepatocytes, but rather in lymphocytes. GBV-C has a worldwide distribution and is transmitted sexually, parenterally and through mother-to-child transmission. Thus, co-infection with HCV and HIV is common. Until now, no human disease has been associated with GBV-C infection. However, there are several reports of a beneficial effect of GBV-C on HIV disease progression in vivo. Different mechanisms to explain these observations have been proposed, including modification of antiviral cytokine production, HIV co-receptor expression, direct inhibition of HIV-1 entry, T-cell activation and Fas-mediated apoptosis. Further understanding of these mechanisms may open new strategies for the treatment of HIV/AIDS.Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy 05/2012; 10(5):563-72. · 3.22 Impact Factor