International Journal of Poultry Science 8 (10): 971-975, 2009
© Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2009
Influence of Feeding Processed Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan)
Seeds on Broiler Chick Performance
Khadiga Abbas Abdelati , Hashim Abdel Rahman Mohammed and Mohamed Elamin Ahmed
Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Animal Production,
University of Khartoum, P.O. Box 71, Khartoum, Sudan
School of Animal Production, Faculty of Agricultural Technology and Fish Sciences,
Alneelain University, P.O. Box 12702, Khartoum, Sudan
Abstract: This experiment was conducted to assess the effect of feeding different processed pigeon pea
seeds on broilers performance. Four isocaloric and iso-nitrogenous diets containing (10%) of soaked
pigeon pea seeds, decorticated with added enzyme (multi enzymes with high content of pentosanase),
decorticated roasted and control diet were formulated. Parameters measured weekly were feed intake, body
weight gain and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR). Overall body weight, hot carcass weight and dressing
percentage were recorded. Results revealed that inclusion of 10% soaked pigeon pea seed, decorticated
with added enzyme (multi enzyme with a high content of pentosanase) and decorticated roasted had no
significant (p>0.05) effects on feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, final live body weight, hot
carcass weight and dressing percentage. Inclusion of 10% processed pigeon pea seeds resulted in a
similar performance of broiler chicks when compared with the control group.
Key words: Pigeon pea, soaking, roasting, decortications, broiler, enzymes
Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) is an important grain
legume commonly grown and consumed in tropical and
subtropical regions of the world (ICRISAT, 1986). Pigeon
pea occupies an important aspect in human nutrition as
a source of dietary proteins in several countries. Pigeon
pea contains a high level of crude protein ranges from
21-30% (Udedibie and Igwe, 1989; Amaefule and
Onwudike, 2000). This provides the best source of feed
for livestock in addition to manufacture of the byproduct.
Pigeon pea was found to contain as percentage CP (22-
27), CF (7.3-10), NFE 61.2, fat (1.7-2.1), ash (3.1-4.2),
lysine about 7.59 (Morton, 1976; Grimand, 1988). Amino
acid availability was 82.33% with low content of sulphur
amino acids especially cystine and methionine.
Moreover, pigeon pea is a good source of soluble
vitamins especially thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and choline
(Singh, 1977). The Metabolizable Energy (ME) content
was 11.1 Mj/kg in the raw and 12.0 Mj/kg in the toasted
seed meal according to Nwokolo (1987).
Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) seeds are currently
considered as a non-conventional feed stuff in poultry
feeding and as a valuable protein feed resource
(Amaefule and Obioha 1998; Amaefule and Onwudike
2000). Polyphenolic compounds (commonly referred to
as tannins), phytic acid, cyanogenic glycosides, etc. act
as nutritional inhibitors in coarse grains. They have been
reported to reduce the bio-availability of protein. Ene-
Obong (1995) found that pigeon pea contain trypsin
inhibitor (7.5-14.4 mg/g) and phytate (8.3-11.3 mg/g).
The experiment was carried-out in an open house
located East-west from cemented brick walls, Iron posts
Amaefule and Nowaghara (2004) reported that
processing of pigeon pea seed improved its dry matter
and crude protein retention especially boiling and
toasting. Thus protease inhibitor and cyanogens, the two
anti-nutritional factors in pigeon pea seed are heat labile
and could be effectively removed by heat processing.
Germination caused a marked improvement in the
caloric value and some valuable nutrients of the seed.
However, the increase content of tannin, total phenolics
and trypsin inhibitory activity of the seed during
progressive germination would certainly limit its nutritive
quality (Ologo, 2004). Igbedioh et al. (1995) stated that
cooking of soaked and dehulled seeds lowered total
phenols contents of pigeon pea by 49% and sprouting of
seeds increased the protein content and reduced the
carbohydrate content. Mulimani et al. (1994) reported
that soaking for 24 h followed by cooking for 20 min was
effective in destroying the trypsin and chemotrypsin
inhibitors. Hence the core objective of this study is to
evaluate and compare the performance of broiler chicks
fed different processed pigeon pea seeds.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Experimental site, housing and duration: The
experiment was conducted in the poultry research unit,
Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum
during the period between September and October 2006
in which the ambient temperature ranged between 30-
Int. J. Poult. Sci., 8 (10): 971-975, 2009
with wire netting. The house was partitioned into 20
pens each of them one meter dimensions. The pens
were cleaned by detergent and disinfected by long live (1
liter/100 liter) and vircon (1 kg/100liter). Every pen was
covered with clean wood-shaving as bedding, each pen
was provided one round fountain drinker and one tabular
feed trough. Continuous
maintained for 24 h naturally and artificially during the six
recorded weekly were live body weight, feed intake,
weight gain and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) which
was calculated for the individual replicates of each
dietary treatment. At the end of the experimental period,
15 chicks were randomly selected from each dietary
treatment (3 birds/replicate) and were leg-tagged. These
birds were weighed individually and slaughtered. Birds
were put in boiling water for few minutes and feathers
were plucked manually, then the birds were washed and
allowed to drain. The hot carcass weight was recorded
lighting program was
Experimental birds: One hundred and forty of unsexed
commercial broiler chicks (Ross) were purchased from
Coral hatcheries and feed production farm located in
Soba, Khartoum state. Some sugar was added to the
drinking water at first day. The chicks were weighted and
allotted randomly into 20 pens in groups of 7 chicks and
replicated five times.
and dressing out percentage was determined by
expressing hot carcass weight to live weight.
Statistical analysis: Complete randomize design was
used in the experiment. The data were subjected to
analysis of variance according to the (Steel and Torrie,
1980), in SAS (1985) version 6.12. When significant
differences occurred, Duncan’s multiple test was used
Experimental diets: Pigeon pea seed was subjected to
different treatments, soaking, decortications or roasting.
It was soaked in water for 10 h and then dry and
samples was analyzed their chemical composition
(Table 1). The decortication operation carried out by
commercial machine while roasting was carried out by
using electrical oven with controlled temperature
distribution for 15 min at 100 C.
to separate treatment means.
Table 1: Proximate analysis (%) of processed pigeon pea seeds
ME Calculated according to equation of Lodhi et al. (1970)
Four experimental diets (Table 2) were formulated to
meet the nutrient requirement of broiler chicks according
to National Research Council (NRC, 1994). The diets
were approximately isocaloric, isonitrogenous. Diet A
control with 0% pigeon pea, diet B contained 10%
soaked pigeon pea, diet C with 10% decorticated pigeon
pea plus BERGAZYMP contains Endo-1,4-B-Xylanase,
with 6.000 in EPU/g (Endo Pentosanase Units) and the
dosage used is 25 g/100kg) and diet D with 10%
decorticated roasted pigeon
experimental diets were approximately analyzed on dry
matter basis for chemical composition according to
AOAC (1990) (Table 4).
pea. Samples of
Management and data collection: Vaccination against
new castle disease was carried out at day 7 and day 21
in drinking water. Vaccination against Gumboro vaccine
was done at day 12 in drinking water. Parameters
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Chemical composition of processed pigeon pea seeds
(Table 1) revealed that decorticated pigeon pea seed
contained higher of CP compared to soaked and
roasted pigeon pea which contain similar protein.
However, decorticated roasted pigeon pea contained
higher values of ME, NFE, Ash, Dry matter and lower
content of EE, CP and CF compared to decorticated and
soaked pigeon pea seeds. Relatively soaked and
decorticated pigeon pea contained similar percentage of
In the present study, Fig. 1, 2 and 3 show the data of
weekly feed intake, weight gain and FCR, respectively,
as affected by processed pigeon pea.
The overall performance of broiler chicks fed processed
pigeon pea seeds is presented in Table 3. The overall
feed intake was similar (p<0.05) in all groups. This
finding agreed with that of Scott et al. (1982), who
reported that when diets were isocaloric, the birds were
expected to consume similar quantity of feed. Moreover,
this might have been due to efficient processing which
decrease the harmful effect of antinutritional factors
(D'Mello, 1995 and Onu and Okongwu, 2006). Moreover,
this may indicated that palatability was not affected by
Regarding the overall weight gain, there were no
significant (p>0.05) differences among the groups fed
on different experimental diets. Birds fed control diet
recorded numerically, higher weight gain followed by the
group received diet containing decorticated pigeon pea
seeds supplemented with enzymes and that fed
decorticated roasted diets. Whereas, those fed on
soaked pigeon pea seeds showed the lowest weight
Improvement in overall performance for all groups other
than the control may due to the higher level of lysine
Int. J. Poult. Sci., 8 (10): 971-975, 2009
Table 2: Composition of experimental broiler diets containing 10% processed pigeon pea seeds
Ingredients, %Control pigeon pea
Pigeon pea 0 10
Dicalcium phosphate 1.45
Calculated analysis (%)
CP% 22.76 22.50
Determined analysis (%)
DM 95.03 95.02
*Super concentrate contains (%) CP 40, lysine 10, methionine 3, methionine + cystine 3.3 Ca 10, Available phosphorus 6.40, CF
1.44, C fat 3.90 ME 1750 kacal/kg, crude minerals 39.30. **Vitamin composition per kg of diet Vitamin A = 200.000 IU, vit D =
70.000 IU, B = 50 mg, B = 120 mg, B = 180 mg, K 30 mg, Niacin 440 mg, Zinc 1.6 mg, Copper 450 mg, iodine 550 mg
Selenium 8 mg, Cobalt 9 mg, Iron 580 mg, Molyden 20 mg
pea + enzymes
Table 3: Effect of feeding processed pigeon pea on overall performance of broiler chicks
ParametersControl pigeon pea
Feed intake 3108.52±6.32295040±6.32
Weight gain 1594.56±6.12 1511.60±6.90
Values are means (±SD) of 5 replicates of 7 birds/ treatment. SEM: Standard error of the means from AVOVA d.f. 16
pea + enzymes
Table 4:Average live weight, hot weight and dressing out percentage of broilers fed diets containing processed pigeon pea seeds
during 0-6 week
Parameters Control pigeon pea
Live weight, g 1754.67±10.0 1735.73±7.07
Hot weight, g 1174.93±14.141143.47±15.81
Dressing out% 66.89±3.6765.87±2.12
Values are means (± SD) of 5 replicates. SEM: Standard error of the means from AVOVA d.f. 16
pea + enzymes
intake. This findings support that obtained by Anderson
and Warnick (1967).
The improvement in performance in broiler fed
decorticated pigeon pea seeds may due to the
supplementation of multiple enzymes with a higher
content of pentosnase and this consequently, lead to
more feed intake which improved the gain.
In response to overall FCR, there were no significant (p>
0.05) difference between birds fed different diets.
However, the poorest FCR was recorded for group fed
roasted pigeon pea seeds diet. This result agreed with
that obtained by Geervani (1970), who related the
negative response of FCR to the destruction of lysine
and methionine in the roasting process. In addition,
Int. J. Poult. Sci., 8 (10): 971-975, 2009
Fig. 1: Effect of pigeon pea seeds on broilers' feed
Fig. 2: Effect of pigeon pea seeds on broilers' weight
Fig. 3: Effect of pigeon pea seeds on broilers' feed
Wallis and Balnave (1984) stated that lysine, glutamic
acid, aspartic acid and threonine most liable to be
damage by heat.
The effect of dietary treatments on final live body weight,
hot carcass weight and dressing percentage of broilers
was shown in Table 4. There was no great difference
between groups on live body weight, hot carcass weight
and dressing percentage. Birds fed decorticated pigeon
pea seed performed the best followed by control group,
soaked group and decorticated roasted group. This best
performance may be due to the supplementation of
multiple enzymes which may enhance digestibility and
this lead to better performance.
Conclusion: Chemical Composition of processed
pigeon pea seeds showed that nutritional value of
pigeon pea was suitable to be used in broiler diets as
source of protein at 10% levels without any adverse
effect. The result obtained from this study demonstrated
that there are no great differences between processed
pigeon pea seeds (soaked, decorticated + enzyme and
decorticated roasted) in overall performance of broiler
chicks compared to control group.
AOAC, 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edn.
Association of Official
Amaefule, K.U. and O.C. Onwudike, 2000. Comparative
evaluation of the processing methods of pigeon pea
seeds (Cajanus cajan) as protein source for
broilers. J. Sustainable Agric. and Environ., 1: 134-
Amaefule, K.U. and A. Nowaghara, 2004. The effect of
processing on nutrient Utilization of pigeon pea
(Cajanus cajan) seed meal and pigeon pea seed
Based diet by pullet. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 3: 543-546.
Amaefule, K.U. and O.F. Obioha, 1998. Effect of
inclusion processed levels of Cajanus cajan seeds
meal on broiler performance. J. Anim. Prod., 25: 1-2,
Amarteito, J.O., D.C. Munthali, K. Karikaris and R.K.
Morake, 2002. The composition of pigeon pea (C.
cajan) grown in Bostwana crop science and
production, private bag. Plant Foods for Human
Nutr., 57: 173-177.
Anderson, J.O. and D.C. Warnick, 1967. Amino acids
requirements of the chicks. Poult. Sci., 38: 1140.
D'Mello, J.P.F., 1995. Antinutritional substances in
legumes seeds. In J P F D'Mello and C. Devendra,
Eds. Tropical legumes
Waltingford, U.K., CAB International, pp: 135-172.
Ene-Obong, H.N., 1995. Effect of various processing on
C. cajan. Plants Food for Human Nutr., 48: 225-233.
Geervani, P., 1970. The effect of heat treatment on the
nutritive value of C. cajan. J. Nutr., 49: 609.
Grimand, P., 1988. Pigeon pea (C. cajan) as possible
alternative for traditional pig and poultry farming in
New Caledonia Review of Medicine Veterinary
in animal nutrition.
ICRISAT (International Crop Research Institute for
Semiarid and Tropics), 1986. Uses of tropical grain
legumes, pp: 130.
Igbedioh, S.O., S. Shaire and B.J. Adenge, 1995. Effect of
composition of C. catan. J. Food Sci. and Technol.
Mysor, 32: 497-500.
phenols and proximate
Int. J. Poult. Sci., 8 (10): 971-975, 2009
Lodhi, G.N.I., P. Singh and J.J. Khopani, 1970. Variation
nutrition of feeding stuff rich in protein and
metabolizable energy as estimation for poultry. J.
Agric., 86: 293-303.
Morton, J.F., 1976. The pigeon pea (C. cajan L. millsp) a
high-protein, tropical legume. Hort. Sci., 11: 11-19.
Mulimani, V.H., S. Paramjyothi and L.A. Nashin, 1994.
Effect of heat treatment on trypsin. Chemotryspin
Inhibitors Activity of Red Gram Pigeon pea (C. cajan)
Plant Foods for Human Nutr., 46: 103-107.
National Research Council (NRC), 1994. Nutrients
requirements of poultry 8th Edn. National Academy
of Sci., Washington, D.C.
Nwokolo, E., 1987. Nutritional evaluation of pigeon pea
meal (C. cajan). Plants Food for Human Nutrition.
Ologo, R.A., 2004. Chemical and nutrition quality
changes in germination seeds of C. cajan. Chem.
Sci., 85: 497-502.
Onu, P.N. and S.N. Okongwu, 2006. Performance
Characteristics and Nutrient Utilization of Starter
Broilers Fed Raw and Processed Pigeon Pea
(Cajanus cajan) Seed Meal. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 5: 693-
Scott, M.L., M.C. Nesheim and R.J. Young, 1982.
Nutrition of the chicken. M.L. Scott and Associates,
Ithaca, New York.
Singh, S.K., 1977. Mineral and vitamins contents of
pigeon pea (C.cajan). FAO Plant Production and
Protection Paper 3. FAO, Rome, pp: 3-204.
Statistical Analysis System Institute Inc., 1985.
SAS/STAT User's Guide. Cary, North Carolina, USA.
Steel, R.G.D. and J.H. Torrie, 1980. Principles and
Procedures of Statistics. A Biometrical Approach.
2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York,
Udedibie, A.B.I. and F.O. Igwe, 1989. Dry matter yield
and chemical composition of pigeon pea (Cajans
Cajan) leaf meal and the nutritive value of pigeon
pea leaf meal grain meal for laying hens. Anim.
Feed Sci. and Technol., 24: 111-119.
Wallis, I.R. and D. Balnave, 1984. The influence of
environmental temperature, age and sex on the
digestibility of amino acids in growing broilers. Br.
Poult. Sci., 25: 401-407.
chemical method for