For the exact detection of parasite species, nested polymerase chain reaction based on small subunit ribosomal RNA gene was conducted, using 140 blood samples from symptomatic malaria cases. Microscopic examination of blood smears detected P. vivax , P. falciparum and a number of mixed infections with these two species and no detection of P. malariae . With the molecular based identification technique, in addition to diagnosis of a higher number of mixed infections, two cases of P. malariae was also identified after 22 years. These results point to the need of the development or utilization of a more accurate diagnostic method to distinguish between P. vivax and P. malariae . It is concluded that P. malariae seems to be re-emerged in South-East of Iran and its co-existence with the other two plasmodium species, P. vivax and P. falciparum , needs consideration during human malaria diagnosis to avoid ignorance and misdiagnosis of this parasite species. This is particularly important in view of the fact that the choice of drug for the anti-malarial therapy depends on the parasite species.
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"Annually, a big proportion of funding and staffing in the world is devoted to malaria problem . However, a variety of factors, including insecticide resistance in vectors, the lack of efficient vaccine, and the emergence and rapid spread of drug-resistant strains are contributing to the deterioration of global malaria situation . Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop effective malaria vaccines . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum-the main causative agent of malaria- provides the parasitewith the potential of escaping the immune response and results in the selection of vaccine and drug-resistant species.Study the allelic variation of different vaccine candidate genes in regions of malaria territorycould be used to design and introducenewtherapeutic methods. Therefore, Merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP-2) was selected for the purpose of evaluating allelic variation in the southeastern region of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested-PCR) amplification was used to determine different allelic forms of MSP-2 gene using specific oligonucleotides. A total of 94 microscopically positive P. falciparum infected individuals from South-East of Iran were included. Findings: Of all94 Plasmodium falciparum specimens, 85wereconfirmed for the presence of MSP-2alleles. The frequency of MSP-2 different allelic classes was considerably high and calculated to be 50.5% and 34.2 % for 3D7 and FC 27 respectively. Conclusion: Both dimorphic alleles of MSP-2 gene were detected where the frequency of 3D7 was the highest among the regions.The frequency of the alleles does not differ much from the results of studies in other regions of the world. However, this information can be beneficial to have a new vaccine designed on the basis of studies on the candidateantigens.