Analysis and Design of Binary Message-Passing Decoders
ABSTRACT Binary message-passing decoders for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are studied by using extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts. The channel delivers hard or soft decisions and the variable node decoder performs all computations in the L-value domain. A hard decision channel results in the well-know Gallager B algorithm, and increasing the output alphabet from hard decisions to two bits yields a gain of more than 1.0 dB in the required signal to noise ratio when using optimized codes. The code optimization requires adapting the mixing property of EXIT functions to the case of binary message-passing decoders. Finally, it is shown that errors on cycles consisting only of degree two and three variable nodes cannot be corrected and a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a cycle-free subgraph is derived. Comment: 8 pages, 6 figures, submitted to the IEEE Transactions on Communications
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ABSTRACT: We consider a class of message-passing decoders for low-den- sity parity-check (LDPC) codes whose messages are binary valued. We prove that if the channel is symmetric and all codewords are equally likely to be transmitted, an optimum decoding rule (in the sense of minimizing message error rate) should satisfy certain symmetry and isotropy condi- tions. Using this result, we prove that Gallager's Algorithm B achieves the optimum decoding threshold among all binary message-passing decoding algorithms for regular codes. For irregular codes, we argue that when the nodes of the message-passing decoder do not exploit knowledge of their decoding neighborhood, optimality of Gallager's Algorithm B is preserved. We also consider the problem of designing irregular LDPC codes and find a bound on the achievable rates with Gallager's Algorithm B. Using this bound, we study the case of low error-rate channels and analytically find good degree distributions for them. Index Terms—Gallager's algorithm B, irregular codes, low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, message-passing decoders.IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. 01/2005; 51:3658-3665.
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ABSTRACT: We design low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes that perform at rates extremely close to the Shannon capacity. The codes are built from highly irregular bipartite graphs with carefully chosen degree patterns on both sides. Our theoretical analysis of the codes is based on the work of Richardson and Urbanke (see ibid., vol.47, no.2, p.599-618, 2000). Assuming that the underlying communication channel is symmetric, we prove that the probability densities at the message nodes of the graph possess a certain symmetry. Using this symmetry property we then show that, under the assumption of no cycles, the message densities always converge as the number of iterations tends to infinity. Furthermore, we prove a stability condition which implies an upper bound on the fraction of errors that a belief-propagation decoder can correct when applied to a code induced from a bipartite graph with a given degree distribution. Our codes are found by optimizing the degree structure of the underlying graphs. We develop several strategies to perform this optimization. We also present some simulation results for the codes found which show that the performance of the codes is very close to the asymptotic theoretical boundsIEEE Transactions on Information Theory 03/2001; · 2.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We present a general method for determining the capacity of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes under message-passing decoding when used over any binary-input memoryless channel with discrete or continuous output alphabets. Transmitting at rates below this capacity, a randomly chosen element of the given ensemble will achieve an arbitrarily small target probability of error with a probability that approaches one exponentially fast in the length of the code. (By concatenating with an appropriate outer code one can achieve a probability of error that approaches zero exponentially fast in the length of the code with arbitrarily small loss in rate.) Conversely, transmitting at rates above this capacity the probability of error is bounded away from zero by a strictly positive constant which is independent of the length of the code and of the number of iterations performed. Our results are based on the observation that the concentration of the performance of the decoder around its average performance, as observed by Luby et al. in the case of a binary-symmetric channel and a binary message-passing algorithm, is a general phenomenon. For the particularly important case of belief-propagation decoders, we provide an effective algorithm to determine the corresponding capacity to any desired degree of accuracy. The ideas presented in this paper are broadly applicable and extensions of the general method to low-density parity-check codes over larger alphabets, turbo codes, and other concatenated coding schemes are outlinedIEEE Transactions on Information Theory 03/2001; · 2.62 Impact Factor