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arXiv:1002.4096v2 [hep-ph] 25 Feb 2010

LHC and ILC Data and the Early Universe Properties

A. Arbey(1), F. Mahmoudi(2)

(1) Universit´ e de Lyon, France; Universit´ e Lyon 1, F–69622; CRAL, Observatoire de Lyon,

F–69561 Saint-Genis-Laval; CNRS, UMR 5574; ENS de Lyon, France.

(2) Clermont Universit´ e, Universit´ e Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3,

LPC, BP 10448, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Summary. — With the start-up of the LHC, we can hope to find evidences for

new physics beyond the Standard Model, and particle candidates for dark matter.

Determining the parameters of the full underlying theory will be a long process

requiring the combination of LHC and ILC data, flavor physics constraints, and

cosmological observations. However, the Very Early Universe properties, from which

the relic particles originate, are poorly known, and the relic density calculation can

be easily falsified by hidden processes. We consider supersymmetry and show that

determining the underlying particle physics parameters will help understanding the

Very Early Universe properties.

PACS 11.30.Pb – Supersymmetry.

PACS 95.35.+d – Dark matter.

PACS 98.80.Cq – Particle-theory and field-theory models of the early Universe.

1. – Introduction

The present and future high energy colliders will hopefully allow the discovery of

new particles. Many new physics models beyond the Standard Model propose particle

candidates for dark matter, within the reach of the LHC and ILC. Should a stable, neutral

and weakly interacting new particle be found, it would be a candidate for dark matter.

Through particle physics computation of annihilation and co-annihiliation diagrams, it

is possible to compute the dark matter relic density [1]. This relic density is then often

compared to the dark matter density deduced from cosmological observations in order to

constrain new physics parameters. If the computed relic density is compatible with the

cosmologically inferred dark matter density, the cosmological model will be reinforced by

this new particle discovery. However, in case of disagreements, two possible paths can

open: either the new physics particle model is not correctly designed, or the cosmological

model is missing ingredients, such as quintessence [2] or reheating [3]. In [4, 5], we showed

that such dark components can modify the computed relic density by several orders of

magnitudes, and we introduced parametrizations to characterize the Very Early Universe

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A. ARBEY, F. MAHMOUDI

properties. Using this kind of parametrizations, and combining with particle physics data,

it will therefore be possible to determine the Very Early Universe properties beyond the

standard cosmological scenario. In the following we will consider Supersymmetry (SUSY)

as an example and discuss the use of relic density to constrain cosmological properties.

2. – Relic density calculation

The density number of supersymmetric particles is determined by the Boltzmann

equation and takes the form:

dn

dt= −3Hn − ?σv?(n2− n2

eq) ,(1)

where n is the number density of supersymmetric particles, ?σv? is the thermally averaged

annihilation cross-section, H is the Hubble expansion rate and neqis the supersymmet-

ric particle equilibrium number density. The expansion rate H is determined by the

Friedmann equation:

H2=8πG

3

(ρrad+ ρD) . (2)

ρradis the radiation energy density, which is considered to be dominant before BBN in

the standard cosmological model. ρDis introduced in Eq. (2) to parametrize the expan-

sion rate modification [4] and can be interpreted either as an additional energy density

modifying the expansion (e.g. quintessence), or as an effective energy density which can

account for other phenomena affecting the expansion rate (e.g. extra-dimensions).

The entropy evolution can also be altered beyond the standard cosmological model.

In presence of entropy fluctuations we give the entropy evolution equation:

ds

dt= −3Hs + ΣD, (3)

where s is the total entropy density. ΣDin the above equation parametrizes effective en-

tropy fluctuations due to unknown properties of the Early Universe, and is temperature-

dependent.

The parameters ρD and ΣD can be regarded as independent. Entropy and energy

alterations are considered here as effective effects, and can be generated by curvature,

phase transitions, extra-dimensions, or other phenomena in the Early Universe. In a

specific physical scenario, these parameters can be related, as for example in reheating

models [3].

The radiation energy and entropy densities can be written as usual:

ρrad= geff(T)π2

30T4,srad= heff(T)2π2

45T3. (4)

We split the total entropy density into two parts: radiation entropy density and effective

dark entropy density, s ≡ srad+sD. Using Eq. (3) the relation between sDand ΣDcan

then be derived:

ΣD=

?

4π3G

5

?1 + ˜ ρDT2

?

√geffsD−1

3

heff

g1/2

∗

TdsD

dT

?

,(5)

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LHC AND ILC DATA AND THE EARLY UNIVERSE PROPERTIES

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with

g1/2

∗

=

heff

√geff

?

1 +

T

3heff

dheff

dT

?

. (6)

Following the standard relic density calculation method [1], Y ≡ n/s is introduced, and

Eq. (1) yields

dY

dx= −mlsp

(7)

where x = mlsp/T, mlspis the mass of the lightest supersymmetric relic particle, and

x2

?

π

45Gg1/2

∗

?

1 + ˜ sD

√1 + ˜ ρD

??

?σv?(Y2− Y2

eq) +

Y ΣD

45T3?2(1 + ˜ sD)2

?heff(T)2π2

?

,

˜ sD≡

sD

heff(T)2π2

45T3,˜ ρD≡

ρD

30T4,

geffπ2

(8)

and

Yeq=

45

4π4T2heff

1

(1 + ˜ sD)

?

i

gim2

iK2

?mi

T

?

,(9)

with i running over all supersymmetric particles of mass mi and with gi degrees of

freedom. Integrating Eq. (7), the relic density can then be calculated using:

Ωh2=mlsps0Y0h2

ρ0

c

= 2.755× 108Y0mlsp/GeV ,(10)

where the subscript 0 refers to the present value of the parameters. In the limit where

ρD= sD= ΣD= 0, standard relations are retrieved. Using Eqs. (1-10) the relic density

in presence of a modified expansion rate and of entropy fluctuations can be computed

provided ρD and sD are specified. For ρD we follow the parametrization introduced in

Ref. [4]:

ρD= κρρrad(TBBN)?T/TBBN

?nρ,(11)

where TBBNis the BBN temperature. Different values of nρleads to different behaviors

of the effective density. For example, nρ= 4 corresponds to a radiation behavior, nρ= 6

to a quintessence behavior, and nρ> 6 to the behavior of a decaying scalar field. κρis

the ratio of the effective energy density to the radiation energy density at BBN time and

can be negative. The role of ρDis to increase the expansion rate for ρD> 0, leading to

an early decoupling and a higher relic density, or to decrease it for ρD< 0, leading to a

late decoupling and to a smaller relic density. To model the entropy perturbations, we

follow the parametrization introduced in Ref. [5]:

sD= κssrad(TBBN)?T/TBBN

?ns.(12)

This parametrization finds its roots in the first law of thermodynamics, where energy

and entropy are directly related and therefore the entropy parametrization can be similar

to the energy parametrization. As for the energy density, different values of nslead to

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A. ARBEY, F. MAHMOUDI

different behaviors of the entropy density: ns= 3 corresponds to a radiation behavior,

ns = 4 appears in dark energy models, ns ∼ 1 in reheating models, and other values

can be generated by curvature, scalar fields or extra-dimension effects. κsis the ratio of

the effective entropy density to the radiation entropy density at BBN time and can be

negative. The role of sDis to increase the temperature at which the radiation dominates

for sD> 0, leading to a decreased relic density, or to decrease this temperature for sD< 0,

increasing the relic density. Constraints on the cosmological entropy in reheating models

have been derived in [6].

3. – SUSY constraints

We now consider the effects of the parametrizations described in the previous section

on the supersymmetric constraints. Using the latest WMAP data [7] with an additional

10% theoretical uncertainty on the relic density calculation, we give the following favored

interval at 95% C.L.:

0.088 < ΩDMh2< 0.123 . (13)

The older dark matter interval is also considered:

0.1 < ΩDMh2< 0.3 . (14)

One million random SUSY points in the NUHM parameter plane (µ,mA) with m0 =

m1/2= 1 TeV, A0 = 0, tanβ = 40 are generated using SOFTSUSY v2.0.18 [8], and

for each point we compute flavor physics observables, direct limits and the relic density

with SuperIso Relic v2.7 [9, 10]. In Fig. 1, the effects of the cosmological models on

the relic density constraints are demonstrated. The first plot is given as a reference for

the standard cosmological model, showing the tiny strips corresponding to the regions

favored by the relic density constraint. In the second plot, generated in a Universe with

an additional energy density with κρ= 10−4and nρ= 6, the relic density favored strips

are reduced, since the calculated relic densities are decreased in comparison to the relic

densities computed in the standard scenario. The next plots demonstrate the influence

of an additional entropy density compatible with BBN constraints. The favored strips

are this time enlarged and moved towards the outside of the plot. This effect is due to a

decrease in the relic density. These figures show that a modification in the cosmological

scenario can completely modify the calculated relic density and lead to different shapes

of the favored parameter regions.

4. – Inverse Problem

The determination of the supersymmetric parameters using particle physics observ-

ables can on the other hand give access to global properties of the relic particle decou-

pling period [11]. Let us consider the NUHM example point (m0 = m1/2= 1 TeV,

mA= µ = 500 GeV, A0= 0, tanβ = 40), which gives a relic density of Ωh2≈ 0.11 in

the cosmological standard model, compatible with WMAP results. The effects due to

the presence of effective energy or entropy in the Early Universe are presented in Fig.

2: the first plot shows the influence of an additional effective density on the computed

relic density. We note that when κρand nρincrease, the relic density increases up to a

factor of 105. The second plot illustrates the effect of an additional entropy density, in

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Fig. 1. – Constraints on the NUHM parameter plane (µ,mA), in the standard cosmological model

(top left), in presence of a tiny energy overdensity with κρ = 10−4and nρ = 6 (top right), and

of an entropy overdensity with κs = 10−5and ns = 5 (bottom left), with κs = 10−4and ns = 5

(bottom right). The red points are excluded by the isospin asymmetry of B → K∗γ, the gray

points by direct collider limits, the yellow zones involve tachyonic particles, and the dark and

light blue strips are favored by the dark matter constraints of Eqs. (13) and (14) respectively.

absence of additional energy density. Here when κsand nsincrease, the relic density is

strongly decreased down to a factor of 10−14. The dark lines delimit the zones which are

compatible with WMAP data. The determination of the NUHM parameters provides

therefore interesting constraints on the cosmological properties of the Early Universe.

It is important to point out that all the cosmological scenarios previously described

are equivalent from the point of view of the cosmological observations: there is no way

to distinguish between them with the current cosmological data.

5. – Conclusion

We discussed the use of the LHC and ILC data, as well as flavor physics constraints,

together with the dark matter relic density evaluation, to explore the properties of the

Very Early Universe. In particular, we provided parametrizations of the entropy content

and the expansion rate for this purpose. We have shown that a disagreement between the

computed relic density and the observed dark matter density may be a sign of deviation