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**ABSTRACT:**We prove a new theorem on the impossibility of combining space-time and internal symmetries in any but a trivial way. The theorem is an improvement on known results in that it is applicable to infinite-parameter groups, instead of just to Lie groups. This improvement is gained by using information about the S matrix; previous investigations used only information about the single-particle spectrum. We define a symmetry group of the S matrix as a group of unitary operators which turn one-particle states into one-particle states, transform many-particle states as if they were tensor products, and commute with the S matrix. Let G be a connected symmetry group of the S matrix, and let the following five conditions hold: (1) G contains a subgroup locally isomorphic to the Poincaré group. (2) For any M>0, there are only a finite number of one-particle states with mass less than M. (3) Elastic scattering amplitudes are analytic functions of s and t, in some neighborhood of the physical region. (4) The S matrix is nontrivial in the sense that any two one-particle momentum eigenstates scatter (into something), except perhaps at isolated values of s. (5) The generators of G, written as integral operators in momentum space, have distributions for their kernels. Then, we show that G is necessarily locally isomorphic to the direct product of an internal symmetry group and the Poincaré group.Physical Review 01/1967; 159(5):1251-1256. - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**It is explained in detail why the Anthropic Principle (AP) cannot yield any falsifiable predictions, and therefore cannot be a part of science. Cases which have been claimed as successful predictions from the AP are shown to be not that. Either they are uncontroversial applications of selection principles in one universe (as in Dicke's argument), or the predictions made do not actually logically depend on any assumption about life or intelligence, but instead depend only on arguments from observed facts (as in the case of arguments by Hoyle and Weinberg). The Principle of Mediocrity is also examined and shown to be unreliable, as arguments for factually true conclusions can easily be modified to lead to false conclusions by reasonable changes in the specification of the ensemble in which we are assumed to be typical. We show however that it is still possible to make falsifiable predictions from theories of multiverses, if the ensemble predicted has certain properties specified here. An example of such a falsifiable multiverse theory is cosmological natural selection. It is reviewed here and it is argued that the theory remains unfalsified. But it is very vulnerable to falsification by current observations, which shows that it is a scientific theory. The consequences for recent discussions of the AP in the context of string theory are discussed.08/2004; -
##### Article: Can Gravitons Be Detected?

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**ABSTRACT:**Freeman Dyson has questioned whether any conceivable experiment in the real universe can detect a single graviton. If not, is it meaningful to talk about gravitons as physical entities? We attempt to answer Dyson's question and find it is possible concoct an idealized thought experiment capable of detecting one graviton; however, when anything remotely resembling realistic physics is taken into account, detection becomes impossible, indicating that Dyson's conjecture is very likely true. We also point out several mistakes in the literature dealing with graviton detection and production. Comment: This version as appeared in Foundations of PhysicsFoundations of Physics 01/2006; · 1.17 Impact Factor

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