Oxygen lines in solar granulation. II. Centre-to-limb variation, NLTE line formation, blends and the solar oxygen abundance

Astronomy and Astrophysics (Impact Factor: 4.48). 09/2009; DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200912840
Source: arXiv

ABSTRACT Context: There is a lively debate about the solar oxygen abundance and the role of 3D models in its recent downward revision. The models have been tested using high resolution solar atlases. Further testing can be done using centre-to-limb variations. Aims: Using high quality observations of oxygen lines across the solar surface we seek to test if the 3D and 1D models reproduce their observed centre-to-limb variation (CLV). In particular we seek to assess whether the 3D model is appropriate to derive the solar oxygen abundance. Methods: We use our recent observations of OI 777 nm, OI 615.81 nm, [OI] 630.03 nm and nine lines of other elements for five viewing angles 0.2<mu<1 of the quiet solar disk. We compare them with the predicted line profiles from the 3D and 1D models computed using the most up-to-date line formation codes, line data and allowing for departures of LTE. The CLV of the OI 777 nm lines is also used to obtain an empirical correction for the poorly known efficiency of the inelastic collisions with H. Results: The 3D model generally reproduces the CLV observations of the lines very well, particularly the oxygen lines. From the OI 777 nm lines we find that the classical Drawin recipe slightly overestimates H collisions. The limb observations of the OI 615.82 nm line allow us to identify a previously unknown contribution of molecules for this line, prevalent at the solar limb. A detailed treatment of the [OI] 630.03 nm line shows that the 3D modeling provides an excellent agreement with the observations. The derived oxygen abundances with the 3D model are 8.68 (OI 777 nm), 8.66 ([OI] 630.03 nm) and 8.62 (OI 615.82 nm). Conclusions: These additional tests have reinforced the trustworthiness of the 3D model and line formation for abundance analyses. Comment: 15 pages, 12 figures, accepted for publication in A&A

  • The Astrophysical Journal 02/2015; 799(2):150. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/799/2/150 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abundances of C, O, and Fe are determined for F and G main-sequence stars in the solar neighborhood in order to study trends and systematic differences in the C/Fe, O/Fe, and C/O ratios for stellar populations. Carbon abundances are determined from the CI lines at 5052 and 5380 AA and oxygen abundances from the OI triplet at 7774 AA and the [OI] line at 6300 AA. MARCS model atmospheres are applied and non-LTE corrections for the OI triplet are included. Systematic differences between high- and low-alpha halo stars and between thin- and thick-disk stars are seen in the trends of [C/Fe] and [O/Fe]. The two halo populations and thick-disk stars show the same trend of [C/O] versus [O/H], whereas thin-disk stars are shifted to higher [C/O]. Furthermore, we find some evidence of higher C/O and C/Fe ratios in stars hosting planets than in stars for which no planets have been detected. The results suggest that C and O in both high- and low-alpha halo stars and in thick-disk stars are made mainly in massive stars, whereas thin-disk stars have an additional carbon contribution from low-mass AGB and massive stars of high metallicity causing a rising trend of C/O with increasing metallicity. However, the C/O ratio does not exceed 0.8, which seems to exclude formation of carbon planets if proto-planetary disks have the same composition as their parent stars.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 06/2014; 568. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201424184 · 4.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The most accurate ages for the oldest stars are those obtained for nearby halo subgiants, because they depend almost entirely on just the measured parallaxes and absolute oxygen abundances. In this study, we have used the Fine Guidance Sensors on the Hubble Space Telescope to determine trigonometric parallaxes, with precisions of 2.1% or better, for the Population II subgiants HD 84937, HD 132475, and HD 140283. High quality spectra have been used to derive their surface abundances of O, Fe, Mg, Si, and Ca, which are assumed to be 0.1-0.15 dex less than their initial abundances due to the effects of diffusion. Comparisons of isochrones with the three subgiants on the $(\log\,T_{\rm eff}, M_V)$-diagram yielded ages of $12.08 \pm 0.14, 12.56 \pm 0.46$, and $14.27 \pm 0.38$ Gyr for HD 84937, HD 132475, and HD 140283, in turn, where each error bar includes only the parallax uncertainty. The total uncertainty is estimated to be $\sim\pm 0.8$ Gyr (larger in the case of the near-turnoff star HD 84937). Although the age of HD 140283 is greater than the age of the universe as inferred from the cosmic microwave background by $\sim$ 0.4-0.5 Gyr, this discrepancy is at a level of $< 1\,\sigma$. Nevertheless, the first Population II stars apparently formed very soon after the Big Bang. (Stellar models that neglect diffusive processes seem to be ruled out as they would predict that HD 140283 is $\sim 1.5$ Gyr older than the universe.) The halo field subgiants appear to be older than globular clusters of similar metallicities: if distances close to those implied by the RR Lyrae standard candle are assumed, M92 and M5 are younger than HD 140283 and HD 132475 by $\sim 1.5$ and $\sim 1.0$ Gyr, respectively.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2014; 792(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/792/2/110 · 6.28 Impact Factor

Full-text (4 Sources)

Available from
Aug 21, 2014