Article

# Bidirectional Single-Electron Counting and the Fluctuation Theorem

Physical review. B, Condensed matter (Impact Factor: 3.77). 08/2009; DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.125331

Source: arXiv

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**ABSTRACT:**The validity of the fluctuation theorem for entropy production as deduced from the observation of trajectories implicitly requires that all slow degrees of freedom are accessible. We experimentally investigate the role of hidden slow degrees of freedom in a system of two magnetically coupled driven colloidal particles. The apparent entropy production based on the observation of just one particle obeys a fluctuation theorem-like symmetry with a slope of 1 in the short time limit. For longer times, we find a constant slope, but different from 1. We present theoretical arguments for a generic linear behavior both for small and large apparent entropy production but not necessarily throughout. By fine-tuning experimental parameters, such an intermediate nonlinear behavior can indeed be recovered in our system as well.Physical Review Letters 05/2012; 108(22). · 7.73 Impact Factor - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**A theoretical study is reported of electron transport at finite temperature in a double quantum dot (DQD) capacitively coupled to a quantum point contact (QPC). Starting from a Hamiltonian model, a master equation is obtained for the stochastic process taking place in the DQD while the QPC is at or away from equilibrium, allowing us to study the backaction of the QPC onto the DQD. The QPC is treated non-perturbatively in our analysis. Effective fluctuation theorems are established for the full counting statistics of the DQD current under different limiting conditions. These fluctuation theorems hold with respect to an effective affinity characterizing the nonequilibrium environment of the DQD and differing from the applied voltage if the QPC is out of equilibrium. The effective affinity may even change its sign if the Coulomb drag of the QPC reverses the DQD current. The thermodynamic implications of the effective fluctuation theorems are discussed.Physical Review B 05/2013; 88(11). · 3.66 Impact Factor - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**This paper is devoted to multivariate fluctuation relations for all the currents flowing across an open system in contact with several reservoirs at different temperatures and chemical potentials, or driven by time-independent external mechanical forces. After some transient behavior, the open system is supposed to reach a nonequilibrium steady state that is controlled by the thermodynamic and mechanical forces, called the affinities. The time-reversal symmetry of the underlying Hamiltonian dynamics implies symmetry relations among the statistical properties of the fluctuating currents, depending on the values of the affinities. These multivariate fluctuation relations are not only compatible with the second law of thermodynamics, but they also imply remarkable relations between the linear or nonlinear response coefficients and the cumulants of the fluctuating currents. These relations include the Onsager and Casimir reciprocity relations, as well as their generalizations beyond linear response. Methods to deduce multivariate fluctuation relations are presented for classical, stochastic and quantum systems. In this way, multivariate fluctuation relations are obtained for energy or particle transport in the effusion of an ideal gas, heat transport in Hamiltonian systems coupled by Langevin stochastic forces to heat reservoirs, driven Brownian motion of an electrically charged particle subjected to an external magnetic field, and quantum electron transport in multi-terminal mesoscopic circuits where the link to the scattering approach is established.New Journal of Physics 11/2013; 15(11):5014-. · 4.06 Impact Factor

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