Restless Legs Syndrome and Parkinson's Disease in Men

Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Movement Disorders (Impact Factor: 5.63). 11/2010; 25(15):2654-7. DOI: 10.1002/mds.23256
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We examined whether men with restless legs syndrome (RLS) have a higher prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) among 23,119 US participants of the Health Professional Follow-up Study who were free of diabetes and arthritis. RLS was assessed using a set of standardized questions recommended by the International RLS Study Group. PD cases were identified by self-reported questionnaires and confirmed by review of medical records. Compared to men without RLS, multivariate-adjusted odds ratios for PD were 1.1 (95% confidence interval: 0.4, 3.0) for men with RLS symptoms 5-14 times per month and 3.09 (95% confidence interval: 1.5, 6.2; P trend = 0.003) for those with symptoms 15 times or more per month, after adjusting for age, smoking, use of antidepressant, and other covariates. In conclusion, men with RLS are more likely to have concurrent PD. Prospective studies are warranted to clarify the temporal relationship between RLS and PD.

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: This narrative review describes the differential diagnosis of restless legs syndrome, and provides an overview of the evidence for the associations between RLS and potential comorbidities. Secondary causes of RLS and the characteristics of pediatric RLS are also discussed. Finally, management strategies for RLS are summarized. Methods: The review began with a comprehensive PubMed search for "restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease" in combination with the following: anxiety, arthritis, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, cardiac, cardiovascular disease, comorbidities, depression, end-stage renal disease, erectile dysfunction, fibromyalgia, insomnia, kidney disease, liver disease, migraine, mood disorder, multiple sclerosis, narcolepsy, neuropathy, obesity, pain, Parkinson's disease, polyneuropathy, pregnancy, psychiatric disorder, sleep disorder, somatoform pain disorder, and uremia. Additional papers were identified by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved publications. Results and Conclusions: Although clinical diagnosis of RLS can be straightforward, diagnostic challenges may arise when patients present with comorbid conditions. Comorbidities of RLS include insomnia, depressive and anxiety disorders, and pain disorders. Differential diagnosis is particularly important, as some of the medications used to treat insomnia and depression may exacerbate RLS symptoms. Appropriate diagnosis and management of RLS symptoms may benefit patient well-being and, in some cases, may lessen comorbid disease burden. Therefore, it is important that physicians are aware of the presence of RLS when treating patients with conditions that commonly co-occur with the disorder.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion 05/2014; DOI:10.1185/03007995.2014.918029 · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nocturnal symptoms are frequent in Parkinson disease (PD) and consist of nocturnal sleep disorders such as REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and restless legs syndrome. There is an increasing need for reliable, early, pre-motor diagnosis of PD, since motor symptoms occur when there is already significant neuronal loss. Recent prospective studies have shown that over 80 % of idiopathic RBD patients over time converted to PD and related synucleinopathies. RBD patients have autonomic, visual, and olfactory dysfunction as well as neuroimaging abnormalities similar to those seen in PD. Studies have shown that neuroimaging abnormalities and visual and olfactory dysfunction can help predict which RBD patients will likely convert to a neurodegenerative diagnosis within a short follow-up period. These factors make RBD an ideal population for prediction to PD conversion, allowing future testing and eventual use of neuroprotective strategies.
    Journal of Neural Transmission 02/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00702-014-1168-4 · 2.87 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Because previous cross-sectional studies suggest an association between metabolic disorders and restless legs syndrome (RLS), we prospectively evaluated whether obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension were associated with increased risk of RLS. Our study consisted of 42,728 female participants from the Nurses' Health Study II and 12,812 male participants from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, free of RLS at baseline (2002 for men and 2005 for women), and free of diabetes and arthritis through follow-up (2002-2008 for men and 2005-2009 for women). RLS symptoms were assessed using the International RLS Study Group's standardized questionnaire. We considered RLS symptoms a "case" if the symptoms occurred ≥5 times/month and met International RLS Study Group criteria. We found that obesity was associated with an increased risk RLS among both men and women (P difference for sex >0.5). The pooled multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for RLS was 1.57 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33-1.85; P trend <0.0001) for body mass index >30 versus ≤23 kg/m(2) and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.29-1.89; P trend = 0.0001) comparing two extreme waist circumference quintiles, adjusting for age, ethnicity, smoking, physical activity, use of antidepressant, and other covariates. A similar significant association was found for high cholesterol; the pooled adjusted OR for total serum cholesterol >240 versus <159 mg/dL was 1.33 (95% CI: 1.11-1.60; P trend = 0.002). There was no significant association between hypertension and RLS risk (adjusted OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.79-1.02). In this large, prospective study, we found that obesity and high cholesterol, but not high blood pressure, were significantly associated with an increased risk of developing RLS. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
    Movement Disorders 07/2014; 29(8). DOI:10.1002/mds.25860 · 5.63 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Aug 26, 2014