Significance of Intragraft CD138+Lymphocytes and p-S6RP in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Biopsies
ABSTRACT We have previously shown that intragraft CD20+ B cells are associated with acute cellular rejection (ACR) and allograft loss. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein, a downstream target of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, promotes growth and proliferation of cells and could identify metabolically active cells such as alloantibody secreting plasma cells. Because CD20+ lymphocytes can differentiate into CD138+ plasma cells, we aimed to identify functionally active plasma cells by using intragraft CD138 quantification and p-S6RP staining and correlate these results with allograft rejection, function, and survival.
We examined 46 renal transplant biopsies from 32 pediatric patients who were biopsied for clinical suspicion of rejection. Immunohistochemical staining for C4d, CD20, CD138, and p-S6RP was performed. Patient creatinine clearance and graft status was followed up postbiopsy.
Patients with greater than or equal to six CD138+ cells/high power field (hpf) had worse graft survival with a hazard ratio of 3.4 (95% CI 1.3-9.2) 2 years postbiopsy compared with those with 0 to 5 cells/hpf (P=0.016). CD138+ cells were stained for p-S6RP, indicating functionally active plasma cells. They were associated with ACR (P=0.004) and deteriorating graft function (R=0.22, P=0.001). Intragraft CD20+ and CD138+ cells found together in ACR were associated with poorer graft survival than either marker alone, hazard ratio 1.5 (95% CI 1.1-2.2, P=0.01).
A threshold of greater than or equal to six CD138+ metabolically active plasma cells per hpf, coexisting with CD20+ B cells, was associated with poor allograft function and survival. This may represent an additional antibody-mediated process present in the setting of ACR and could play an important role in characterization and treatment of transplant rejection.
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ABSTRACT: Acute rejection (AR) includes T-cell-mediated and antibody-mediated rejection. The inflammatory infiltrate comprised not only T cells but also varying amounts of B cells (CD20(+)) and plasma cells (CD138(+)). The latter are associated with poor clinical outcomes, but their functional status is not clear. The phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein (p-S6RP) is present in cells that are metabolically active, thus identifying functionally active antibody-secreting plasma cells. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical significance of functionally active p-S6RP plasma cells in AR in renal allografts. Renal allografts with biopsy evidence of AR during 2006-2009 were included. Immunohistochemistry staining for CD20, CD138, and p-S6RP was performed on paraffin-embedded slides and scaled as 0-6. The response to antirejection treatment was assessed by the serum creatinine ratio (CrR) at rejection episode (time 0) and following treatment (4 and 12 weeks). Patients with lower scores (0-2) were compared with a higher scored group (3-6). The T-test was conducted using statistical significance of p<0.05. A total of 28 patients (40.7±14.3 year; M:F=15:13) were diagnosed with acute T-cell-mediated rejection (I and II). The p-S6RP staining in the high-score group had a significantly higher CrR (p<0.05) than the low-score group at the time of biopsy, 4 and 12 weeks following treatment. There was no significant difference in the CrR between groups for CD20 or CD138 staining. Functional antibody-secreting p-S6RP plasma cells are actively participating in AR and associated with poor response to treatment in renal allografts.DNA and cell biology 03/2014; DOI:10.1089/dna.2014.2371 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Donor-specific antibodies are associated with refractory rejection episodes and poor allograft outcomes in solid organ transplantation. Our understanding of antibody-mediated allograft injury is expanding beyond complement deposition. In fact, unique mechanisms of alloantibodies are advancing our knowledge about transplant vasculopathy and antibody-mediated rejection. These include direct effects on the endothelium, resulting in the recruitment of leukocytes, chemokine and cytokine production, and stimulation of innate and adaptive alloresponses. These effects will be the focus of the following review.Tissue Antigens 06/2014; 83(6). DOI:10.1111/tan.12381 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Solid organ transplantation has transformed the lives of many children and adults by providing treatment for patients with organ failure who would have otherwise succumbed to their disease. The first successful transplant in 1954 was a kidney transplant between identical twins, which circumvented the problem of rejection from MHC incompatibility. Further progress in solid organ transplantation was enabled by the discovery of immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids and azathioprine in the 1950s and ciclosporin in 1970. Today, solid organ transplantation is a conventional treatment with improved patient and allograft survival rates. However, the challenge that lies ahead is to extend allograft survival time while simultaneously reducing the side effects of immunosuppression. This is particularly important for children who have irreversible organ failure and may require multiple transplants. Pediatric transplant teams also need to improve patient quality of life at a time of physical, emotional and psychosocial development. This review will elaborate on the long-term outcomes of children after kidney, liver, heart, lung and intestinal transplantation. As mortality rates after transplantation have declined, there has emerged an increased focus on reducing longer-term morbidity with improved outcomes in optimizing cardiovascular risk, renal impairment, growth and quality of life. Data were obtained from a review of the literature and particularly from national registries and databases such as the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies for the kidney, SPLIT for liver, International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation and UNOS for intestinal transplantation.Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) 01/2014; 69(Suppl 1):28-38. · 1.59 Impact Factor