DNA Methylation Analysis Determines the High Frequency of Genic Hypomethylation and Low Frequency of Hypermethylation Events in Plasma Cell Tumors

The Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, AZ, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.28). 09/2010; 70(17):6934-44. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-0282
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy of the bone marrow, which evolves from a premalignant stage called monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). In some patients, an intermediate stage referred to as smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is clinically recognized, with the full-bore malignancy termed MM. We conducted a study to assess differential CpG methylation at 1,500 genic loci during MM progression and profiled CD138(+) plasma cells from MGUS, SMM, and MM specimens; human myeloma cell lines; and normal plasma cell (NPC) samples. We showed that the number of differentially methylated loci (DML) increased with tumor grade, and the vast majority were due to hypomethylation. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed samples that coclustered tightly with NPC. These cases, referred to as "normal-like," contained significantly fewer DML when compared with their non-normal-like counterparts and displayed overall methylation levels resembling NPC. This study represents one of the first methylome interrogation studies in MM and points toward global hypomethylation at genic CpG loci as an important and early mechanism driving myelomagenesis. Determining the set of critical genes and pathways based on the myeloma methylome is expected to lead to an improved understanding of biological mechanisms involved in myelomagenesis.

Download full-text


Available from: Bodour Salhia, Mar 19, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While analyzing the DNA methylome of multiple myeloma (MM), a plasma cell neoplasm, by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and high-density arrays, we observed a highly heterogeneous pattern globally characterized by regional DNA hypermethylation embedded in extensive hypomethylation. In contrast to the widely reported DNA hypermethylation of promoter-associated CpG islands (CGIs) in cancer, hypermethylated sites in MM, as opposed to normal plasma cells, were located outside CpG islands and were unexpectedly associated with intronic enhancer regions defined in normal B cells and plasma cells. Both RNA-seq and in vitro reporter assays indicated that enhancer hypermethylation is globally associated with downregulation of its host genes. ChIP-seq and DNase-seq further revealed that DNA hypermethylation in these regions is related to enhancer decommissioning. Hypermethylated enhancer regions overlapped with binding sites of B cell-specific transcription factors (TFs) and the degree of enhancer methylation inversely correlated with expression levels of these TFs in MM. Furthermore, hypermethylated regions in MM were methylated in stem cells and gradually became demethylated during normal B-cell differentiation, suggesting that MM cells either reacquire epigenetic features of undifferentiated cells or maintain an epigenetic signature of a putative myeloma stem cell progenitor. Overall, we have identified DNA hypermethylation of developmentally-regulated enhancers as a new type of epigenetic modification associated with the pathogenesis of MM. Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), including immunoglobulin light chain only MGUS, is an age-dependent premalignant tumor that is present in about 4% of Caucasian individuals over the age of 50 years. It is comprised of two different kinds of tumors: about 15% lymphoid or lymphoplasmacytoid MGUS and the remainder plasma cell MGUS. Plasma cell MGUS is stable but can sporadically progress to multiple myeloma (MM) at an average rate of about 1% per year. Most, if not all, MM tumors are preceded by plasma cell MGUS, which shares four partially overlapping oncogenic features with MM. It presently is not possible to unequivocally distinguish an MGUS tumor cell from an MM tumor cell. However, two models based on clinical laboratory tests indicate that it is possible to stratify MGUS tumors into groups that have average rates of progression as low as 0.26% per year and as high as 12% per year.
    Seminars in Hematology 01/2011; 48(1):4-12. DOI:10.1053/j.seminhematol.2010.11.003 · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is an ectomesenchymal benign odontogenic tumor characterized by spindle or stellate-shaped cells embedded in an abundant myxoid or mucoid extracellular matrix. DNA methylation is characterized by the addition of methyl groups in cytosines within CpG islands in the promoter gene. DNA methylation can decrease the expression of tumor suppressor genes and contribute to the development of neoplastic lesions. The aim of study was to evaluate the methylation pattern of the tumor suppressor genes P16 (CDKN2A), P21 (CDKN1A), P27 (CDKN1B), P53 (TP53) and RB1 in OM and dental pulp. Methylation was evaluated using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The transcription was studied in some cases by using reverse transcription quantitative PCR. A higher frequency of unmethylated P27, P53, and RB1 samples was observed in the OM when compared with the dental pulp. OM expressed mRNA of all the genes evaluated. Considering all the samples together, the expression of Rb was higher in the unmethylated samples compared with the partially methylated samples. This investigation revealed hypomethylation of the genes P27, P53, and RB1 in OM. In addition, methylation of tumor suppressor genes was found to be an usual event in normal dental pulp.
    Brazilian dental journal 01/2011; 22(5):422-7. DOI:10.1590/S0103-64402011000500013