Germline mutation in BRAF codon 600 is compatible with human development: de novo p.V600G mutation identified in a patient with CFC syndrome
ABSTRACT BRAF, the protein product of BRAF, is a serine/threonine protein kinase and one of the direct downstream effectors of Ras. Somatic mutations in BRAF occur in numerous human cancers, whereas germline BRAF mutations cause cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome. One recurrent somatic mutation, p.V600E, is frequently found in several tumor types, such as melanoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, colon cancer, and ovarian cancer. However, a germline mutation affecting codon 600 has never been described. Here, we present a patient with CFC syndrome and a de novo germline mutation involving codon 600 of BRAF, thus providing the first evidence that a pathogenic germline mutation involving this critical codon is not only compatible with development but can also cause the CFC phenotype. In vitro functional analysis shows that this mutation, which replaces a valine with a glycine at codon 600 (p.V600G), leads to increased ERK and ELK phosphorylation compared to wild-type BRAF but is less strongly activating than the cancer-associated p.V600E mutation.
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ABSTRACT: (L597V)BRAF mutations are acquired somatically in human cancer samples and are frequently coincident with RAS mutations. Germline (L597V)BRAF mutations are also found in several autosomal dominant developmental conditions known as RASopathies, raising the important question of how the same mutation can contribute to both pathologies. Using a conditional knock-in mouse model, we show that endogenous expression of (L597V)Braf leads to approximately twofold elevated Braf kinase activity and weak activation of the Mek/Erk pathway. This is associated with induction of RASopathy hallmarks including cardiac abnormalities and facial dysmorphia but is not sufficient for tumor formation. We combined (L597V)Braf with (G12D)Kras and found that (L597V)Braf modified (G12D)Kras oncogenesis such that fibroblast transformation and lung tumor development were more reminiscent of that driven by the high-activity (V600E)Braf mutant. Mek/Erk activation levels were comparable with those driven by (V600E)Braf in the double-mutant cells, and the gene expression signature was more similar to that induced by (V600E)Braf than (G12D)Kras. However, unlike (V600E)Braf, Mek/Erk pathway activation was mediated by both Craf and Braf, and ATP-competitive RAF inhibitors induced paradoxical Mek/Erk pathway activation. Our data show that weak activation of the Mek/Erk pathway underpins RASopathies, but in cancer, (L597V)Braf epistatically modifies the transforming effects of driver oncogenes.Genes & development 08/2012; 26(17):1945-58. DOI:10.1101/gad.193458.112 · 12.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aberrant mitochondrial structure and function influence tissue homeostasis and thereby contribute to multiple human disorders and aging. Ten percent of patients with primary mitochondrial disorders present skin manifestations that can be categorized into hair abnormalities, rashes, pigmentation abnormalities and acrocyanosis. Less attention has been paid to the fact that several disorders of the skin are linked to alterations of mitochondrial energy metabolism. This review article summarizes the contribution of mitochondrial pathology to both common and rare skin diseases. We explore the intriguing observation that a wide array of skin disorders presents with primary or secondary mitochondrial pathology, and that a variety of molecular defects can cause dysfunctional mitochondria. Among them are mutations in mitochondrial- and nuclear DNA-encoded subunits and assembly factors of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes; mutations in intermediate filament proteins involved in linking, moving and shaping of mitochondria; and disorders of mitochondrial DNA metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and heme synthesis. Thus, we assume that mitochondrial involvement is the rule rather than the exception in skin diseases. We conclude the article by discussing how if improving mitochondrial function can might be beneficial for aged skin and can be used as an adjunct therapy for certain skin disorders. Consideration of mitochondrial energy metabolism in the skin creates a new perspective for both dermatologists and experts in metabolic disease.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Experimental Dermatology 06/2014; 23(9). DOI:10.1111/exd.12484 · 4.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BRAF is an oncogene encoding a serine-threonine protein kinase involved in the MAPK signalling cascade. BRAF acts as direct effector of RAS and through the activation of MEK, promotes tumour growth and survival. Approximately, 8% of cancers carry a BRAF mutation. However, the prevalence of this mutation varies significantly across different tumour types. There has been increasing interest in the specific role of BRAF mutations in cancer growth and progression over the last few years, especially since the clinical introduction of therapeutic BRAF inhibitors. In this paper we review the published literature on the role of BRAF mutations in melanoma and colorectal cancer, focusing on similarities and differences of BRAF mutations with respect to frequency, demographics, risk factors, mutation-associated clinico-pathologic and molecular features and clinical implications between these two diseases.Critical reviews in oncology/hematology 12/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.critrevonc.2012.11.003 · 4.05 Impact Factor