Article

Mephedrone, new kid for the chop?

King's College London, Department of Addictions, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK.
Addiction (Impact Factor: 4.6). 01/2011; 106(1):154-61. DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03130.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a novel synthetic stimulant drug that has recently become popular in the United Kingdom and elsewhere in Europe. It has a short history of human consumption and little is known about its prevalence and pattern of use. This study aimed to obtain preliminary data on its use and effects among dance drug users in the United Kingdom.
  Cross-sectional anonymous online survey of mephedrone recruited as part of larger study exploring patterns of drug use among those associated with the dance music scene. Setting  UK-based dance music and clubbing website.
A total of 947 ever users of mephedrone recruited as part of a wider study on dance drug use patterns.
Assessment of demographics, ever and current drug use and patterns and selected effects following use of mephedrone.
A total of 947 (41.3%) of 2295 participants reported ever having used mephedrone. Mephedrone was the sixth most frequently used drug in the last month after tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Users were typically younger (P < 0.001) and male (P < 0.01); 15.1% reported using weekly or more frequently; 49.5% reported using between 0.5 and 1 g during a typical session; 69.5% reported that intranasal use was the most common route of use. Intranasal use was associated with increased abuse liability; 54.6% of those who have also used cocaine reported that the quality of the high obtained with mephedrone was better, with those using intranasally being significantly more likely than those who took the drug orally to report that mephedrone was more addictive (P < 0.02) and more risky (P < 0.02) than cocaine. Route of use was unrelated to any stimulant-related adverse effect apart from palpitations (P < 0.005).
Mephedrone appears to be used primarily intranasally and to have comparable abuse potential to cocaine, with more than half those who use both reporting that mephedrone gives a better quality high.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
171 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Methoxphenidine (MXP) was one of several NMDA antagonists marketed in 2013 to replace the recently controlled compound Methoxetamine (MXE). A steep rise in user interest was recorded, despite vendor cautioning of limited user feedback. The study presented a phenomenological analysis of MXP experiences amongst recreational drug users as posted on public Internet fora. Internet searches were carried out using specific key words; "methoxphenidine," "MXP" and in combination with "experience," "report," "forum," and "trip." Seven self-reported experiences and 28 thread discussions relating sole use of MXP were analyzed using the Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method. Five themes and 61 categories emerged. MXP is marketed as a legal replacement for MXE, diphenidine, and ketamine, with a dissociative and stimulant wave outcome often lasting for days. Harm reduction tactics, awareness of prior tolerance to dissociative and optimal settings for use are discussed. Acute side-effects relate to hypertension and seizures. Chronic long-term memory loss and limb numbness is reported. Sense of empowerment occurs in the afterglow experience. Internet drug fora fuel information exchange and informed consumerism of synthetic compounds, and offer viable mechanisms for pre- and post-purchase decision making and indigenous harm reduction. Continued surveillance of synthetic market entries and user trends is warranted.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 01/2015; 47(1):30-41. DOI:10.1080/02791072.2014.974002 · 1.10 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Methylone is a commonly abused synthetic cathinone derivative marketed as a “legal” alternative to “ecstasy” or cocaine. Previous studies examined the metabolism of methylone in vitro and in vivo; 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethcathinone (HMMC) was identified as the primary metabolite, with other reported minor metabolites, 3,4-methylenedioxycathinone (MDC) and 3,4-dihydroxymethcathinone (HHMC). However, limited information is known about methylone and its metabolites’ pharmacokinetics. We developed and fully validated a method for the simultaneous quantification of methylone, HMMC, MDC and HHMC by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 100 µl rat and human plasma. β-Glucuronidase was utilized for plasma hydrolysis, followed by perchloric acid protein precipitation and solid-phase extraction utilizing cation exchange columns. Chromatographic separation was performed with a Synergi Polar column in gradient mode, and analytes were determined by two multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions. Linear ranges of 0.5-1,000 µg/l (methylone, HMMC and MDC) and 10-1,000 µg/l (HHMC) were achieved. Bias and imprecision were generally acceptable, although quantification of HHMC exhibited variability (16.2-37 %). Extraction efficiencies and ion suppression were 89.9-104 % (for HHMC, 15.9-16.2 %) and < 11.4 %, respectively. Methylone and metabolites were stable in plasma for 24 h at room temperature, 72 h at 4 °C, and after three freeze-thaw cycles (except for a 60 % HMMC increase). Human and rat plasma were cross-validated, documenting that rat plasma quality control samples were accurately quantified against a human plasma calibration curve (−23.8 to 12 % bias). As proof of method, rat plasma specimens were analyzed pre-injection and after subcutaneous administration of methylone at 6 mg/kg from 15 to 480 min post-dosing. Methylone, HMMC, MDC and HHMC concentrations ranged from 1.1 to 1,310, 11.2 to 194, 1.9 to 152 and 24.7 to 188 µg/l, respectively.
    Forensic Toxicology 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11419-015-0263-z · 5.76 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: New psychoactive drugs, so-called legal highs, have gained more and more popularity during the last years. One of the most important groups of these legal high substances are the synthetic phenethylamines that share a common phenethylamine moiety. Based on certain structural characteristics, these synthetic phenethylamines can be divided into further subclasses, among which the synthetic cathinones ('bath salts') are particularly noteworthy. Synthetic cathinones are characterized by an additional carbonyl group attached at the beta position on the amino alkyl chain. Consumption of synthetic phenethylamines can lead to impairments similar to those observed after the use of, for instance, amphetamine or 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy'). These impairments include diverse neurological and psychological symptoms which can affect a safe driving behaviour. Although several reports on clinical symptoms and poisonings due to these substances have been published, most of these publications do not contain any analytical data. Additionally, there is still a lack of information concerning pharmacological and toxicological effects of these rather new psychoactive substances. In particular, the knowledge of the impact on the ability to drive following consumption of synthetic phenethylamines is relevant for the police as well as for forensic toxicologists. In this publication, several cases of individuals driving under the influence (DUI) of synthetic phenethylamines (4-fluoroamphetamine, mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone, 4-MMC), 2-DPMP (desoxypipradol), methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), benzedrone, N-ethylamphetamine (etilamfetamine), 3-methylmethcathinone (3-MMC)) are presented, focusing on analytical results and signs of impairment.
    Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00414-015-1150-1 · 2.60 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
71 Downloads
Available from
May 30, 2014