In general, harvesting of costal cartilage from the seventh rib from the right side appears advisable for rhinoplasty procedures in male and female patients. The thickness of the soft tissue envelope anterior to the different ribs varies significantly, which demands an individual consideration in rhinoplasty procedures.
To clarify which of the sixth, seventh or eighth rib contains the maximum amount of cartilage and degree of calcification in relation to age, side, and gender.
Digital 2 mm slices of spiral diagnostic thorax CT scans were used to measure costal cartilage sizes in a retrospective study. A total of 60 male and 60 female patients with normal findings were collected and stratified by age (range 16-70 years).
On both sides, the seventh rib was identified as the most cartilage-containing rib, independent of gender. The length of costal cartilage of the sixth and seventh rib was significantly related to age on both sides (p < 0.01). This finding did not reach statistical significance for the eighth rib, on either the right (p = 0.376) or the left side (p = 0.204). Calcification of the sixth and seventh rib, but not of the eighth rib, significantly increased with age. In general, calcification was not related to gender or one side.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of septal cartilage (SC) and costal cartilage (CC) grafts harvested from different ribs and to find at which level CC has characteristics closest to SC.
Experimental cadaver study.
Istanbul Training and Research Hospital.
Cartilage grafts were harvested from the 6th, 7th, and 8th ribs and the SC of 10 fresh cadavers. Shaped cartilage grafts were subjected to a bending test. Results were measured, and the force-deflection curve was plotted. Flexural strength (σ(f)) and flexural modulus of elasticity (E(f)) were determined. Fractured surfaces were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
According to F(max), it was determined that ribs 6, 7, and 8 have significantly more durability compared with the SC (Ps = .030, .004, and .001). With regard to deflection, there was no significant difference between the SC and the 6th and 7th ribs and between the 6th and 7th ribs (Ps = 1.000, .088, and .306), while a significant difference was found between the SC and the 8th rib (P = .001). According to σ(f), no differences were seen between the 6th and 7th rib (P = .782), while difference was detected between the 6th and 8th and the 7th and 8th ribs (p = .001). Similar trends were established in E(f) values as in σ(f.) These results were confirmed by SEM images.
The 7th CC can be used as autograft because it shows similar properties to SC. However, the 6th CC is preferred if more flexibility is desired, and the 8th CC is preferred where more strength is needed.
Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 11/2011; 146(3):377-81. DOI:10.1177/0194599811427386 · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue banks around the world store human cartilage obtained from cadaveric donors for use in diverse reconstructive surgical procedures. To ensure this tissue is sterile at the time of distribution, tissues may be sterilized by ionizing radiation. In this work, we evaluate the physical changes in deep frozen costal cartilage (-70 °C) or costal cartilage preserved in high concentrations of glycerol (>98 %) followed by a terminal sterilization process using ionizing radiation, at 3 different doses (15, 25 and 50 kGy). Tension and compression tests were carried out to determine the mechanical changes related both to the different preservation methods and irradiation doses. For both methods of preservation, tension strength was increased by about 24 %, when cartilage tissue was irradiated with 15 kGy. Deep frozen samples, when irradiated with 25 or 50 kGy, had a decrease in their mechanical performance, albeit to a lesser extent than when tissues were preserved in high concentration of glycerol and equally irradiated. In conclusion, processing in high concentration of glycerol did not increase tissue protection against radiation damage; while cartilage preserved in high concentrations of glycerol withstands radiation up to 25 kGy, deep frozen human costal cartilage may be sterilized with a doses up to 50 kGy without significant mechanical impact.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Rib cartilage from the sixth, seventh, and eighth ribs offers a long cartilaginous curvature, making the material reliable for grafting. Calcification of cartilage causes unexpected absorption, difficult manipulation, and donor site morbidity. Most studies of calcification were performed in Western countries. OBJECTIVE To investigate the incidence, degree, and pattern of rib cartilage calcification in Asian patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective study of computed tomographic scans of the chest in 120 patients (60 male and 60 female). The incidence, degree, and pattern of cartilage calcification of the sixth through eighth ribs were noted. The patients were stratified into 6 age groups, and 20 patients (10 male and 10 female) were selected for each group. The degree of calcification was assessed as 0%, 1% to 25%, 26% to 50%, 51% to 75%, and 76% to 100%. Meaningful calcification was defined as 26% or greater. The pattern of calcification was classified as marginal, granular, and central. EXPOSURE Computed tomographic scans of the chest. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Degree of calcification, presence of meaningful calcification, and calcification pattern. RESULTS Overall, 50.8% of cartilage was calcified, and female patients showed more frequent calcification than male patients (59.4% vs 42.2% [P < .001]). Calcification rates of the sixth and seventh rib cartilage were higher than those of the eighth rib cartilage in all age groups except teenagers, who had a similar rate for all 3 ribs. Calcification of the sixth and seventh rib cartilage significantly increased with age. A meaningful calcification rate was very low in males younger than 60 years, whereas the rate was relatively higher in females than males for all age groups. Males predominantly had the marginal type of calcification, whereas females predominantly had a granular type. The rate and pattern of calcification had no relationship to age. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In Asian patients, males younger than 60 years show a very low incidence of calcification, whereas females 30 years or older show a relatively high incidence of meaningful calcification. Asian females also show a predominantly granular or central pattern of calcification that may hinder proper harvest and incision of the rib cartilage. These differences in the incidence and pattern of rib cartilage calcification need appropriate preoperative attention. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE NA.
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