Article

Prevalence of urinary tract infection among women at Bugando Medical Center, Mwanza, Tanzania

Department of Obstetric and Gynaecology, Bugando Medical Centre, P.O. Box 1370, Mwanza, Tanzania.
Tanzania journal of health research 07/2009; 11(3):154-9. DOI: 10.4314/thrb.v11i3.47704
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy and these infections. Untreated UTI can be associated with serious obstetric complications. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of UTI among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women attending Bugando Medical centre (BMC) in Mwanza, Tanzania. A total of 247 pregnant women were enrolled, of these 78 (31.5%) were symptomatic and 169 (68.4%) asymptomatic. UTI was diagnosed using mid stream urine (MSU) culture on standard culture media and urinalysis was done using rapid dip stick. The prevalence of bacteriuria among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women were 17.9% and 13.0% respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.307). Using univariate analysis there was no association of parity (p = 0.825), gestational age (p = 0.173), education (p = 0.615), age (p = 0.211) and marital status (p = 0.949) with bacteriuria. The sensitivity and specificity of urine dipstick was 38.9% and 86.7% respectively. Escherichia coli (47.2%) and Enterococcus spp (22.2%) were the most commonly recovered pathogens. The rate of resistance of Escherichia coli to ampicillin, tetracycline, sulfamethaxazole/trimethoprim, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, ceftriaxone, and imipenem were 53%, 58.8%, 64.7%, 5.9%, 11.8%, 5.9%, 29.4% and 0%, respectively. In conclusion, asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women is prevalent in our setting and majority of Escherichia coli are resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, SXT and ceftriaxone. Due to low sensitivity of rapid dip stick, routine urine culture and susceptibility testing is recommended to all pregnant women at booking.

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    • "In our study the sensitivity and specificity of urine dipstick (nitrate and leukocyte esterase in combination) was 22.9% and 99.1% respectively which is comparable with the study done by Masinde et al.[10] in Tanzania, who reported the sensitivity and specificity of the dipstick test result 38.9% and 86.7% respectively. In the current study the sensitivity of leukocyte esterase and nitrite was 51.4% and 42.9%, while its specificity was 88.9% and 98% which has similar pattern with the study reported by Kacmaz et al.[6] where the sensitivity of urine leukocyte esterase and nitrite was found to be 70% and 60%, and specificity was 92.5% and 99.2% respectively. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Untreated bacteriuria during pregnancy has been shown to be associated with low birth-weight and premature delivery. Therefore, routine screening for bacteriuria is advocated. The decision about how to screen pregnant women for bacteriuria has always been a balance between the cost of screening versus the sensitivity and specificity. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the rapid dipstick test to predict urinary tract infection in pregnancy against the gold standard urine culture. Method A total of 367 mid stream urine samples were collected, inoculated on MacConkey, Manitol salt agar (MSA) and blood agar and incubated aerobically at 37°C for overnight. Specimens were classified as “positive” for urinary tract infection (UTI) if the growth of the pathogen(s) was at a count ≥ 105 colony-forming units per milliliter (cfu/mL) of urine and classified as “negative” with growth of <105 cfu/mL. Urine samples were tested for the presence of nitrite and leukocyte esterase using dipstick rapid test in accordance to the manufacturer’s instructions. Results From the total study participants, 37 pregnant women were symptomatic and the remaining 330 pregnant women were asymptomatic. The sensitivity and specificity of dipstick tests of leukocyte esterase was 50% and 89.1% for pregnant women with asymptomatic UTI(ABU) and 71.4% and 86.7% for symptomatic UTI respectively and for nitrite 35.7% and 98.0% for ABU and 57.1% and 96.7% symptomatic UTI. Conclusion This study revealed that the use of dipstick leukocyte esterase and nitrite for screening UTI particularly asymptomatic bacteriuria was associated with many false positive and negative results when it was compared against the gold standard culture method. The low sensitivity and positive predictive value of urine dipstick test proved that culture should be used for the diagnosis of UTI.
    BMC Research Notes 07/2014; 7(1):481. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-481
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    • "respectively. Similar findings were also reported in previous studies in Ethiopia [20] and Tanzania [22] from pregnant women. In this study, a statically significant bacteriuria was found among divorced study participants. "
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    ABSTRACT: Many women die from complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. In developing countries particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, where access to emergency obstetrical care is often limited, obstetric fistula usually occurs as a result of prolonged obstructed labour. Obstetric fistula patients have many social and health related problems like urinary tract infections (UTIs). Despite this reality there was limited data on prevalence UTIs on those patients in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, drug susceptibility pattern and associated risk factors of UTI among obstetric fistula patients at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from January to May, 2013 at Gondar University Hospital. From each post repair obstetric fistula patients, socio-demographic and UTIs associated risk factors were collected by using a structured questionnaire. After the removal of their catheters, the mid-stream urine was collected and cultured on CLED. After overnight incubation, significant bacteriuria was sub-cultured on Blood Agar Plate (BAP) and MacConkey (MAC). The bacterial species were identified by series of biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done by disc diffusion method. Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. A total of 53 post repair obstetric fistula patients were included for the determination of bacterial isolate and 28 (52.8%) of them had significant bacteriuria. Majority of the bacterial isolates, 26 (92.9%), were gram negative bacteria and the predominant ones were Citrobacter 13 (24.5%) and E.coli 6 (11.3%). Enterobacter, E.coli and Proteus mirabilis were 100% resistant to tetracycline. Enterobacter, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsella pneumonia, Klebsella ozenae and Staphylococcus aureus were also 100% resistant to ceftriaxone. The prevalence of bacterial isolates in obstetric fistula patients was high and majority of the isolates were gram negative bacteria. Even thought the predominant bacterial isolates were Citrobacter and E.coli, all of the bacterial isolates had multiple antibiotic resistance patterns which alert health profession to look better treatment for these patients.
    BMC Women's Health 01/2014; 14(1):12. DOI:10.1186/1472-6874-14-12 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    • "Similar findings were reported by Haider et al[6] on UTI in Pakistan, Taher et al[21] in Qatar and Sescon et al[7] in Philippines among asymptomatic pregnant women. Masinde et al[22] also identified that past history of UTI is a risk factor for UTI during pregnancy. But absence of association was reported by Hamdan et al[23] in Sudan and by Kovavisarach et al[20] in Thailand. "
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    ABSTRACT: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans, both in the community and hospital settings. It is a serious health problem affecting millions of people each year and is the leading cause of Gram-negative bacteremia. We previously conducted a study on "Urinary Bacterial Profile and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of UTI among Pregnant Women in North West Ethiopia" but the study did not address risk factors associated with urinary tract infection so the aim of the study was to assess associated risk factors UTI among pregnant women in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, North West Ethiopia. A total of 367 pregnant women with and without symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) were included as a study subject from January 2011 to April 2011. Midstream urine samples were collected and processed following standard bacteriological tests. Data concerning associated risk factors were collected using structured questionnaires and were processed and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 16). Result Bivarait analysis of socio-demographic characteristics and associated risk factors of UTI showed that family income level (family monthly income level < 500 birr($37.85); P=0.006, OR=5.581, CI=1.658, 18.793 and 501-1000 birr($37.93-$75.70), P=0.039, OR=3.429, CI=1.065, 11.034), anaemia (P=0.003, OR=4.388, CI=1.776, 10.839), sexual activity (P=0.032, OR=3.520, CI=1.197,10.363) and past history of UTI (P=0.000, OR=3.397, CI=1.672, 6.902) were found to be factors significantly associated with increase prevalence of UTI. In contrast multiparity, history of catheterization, genitourinary abnormality, maternal age, gestational age and educational status were not significantly associated with UTI among pregnant women. In this study UTI was high among pregnant women in the presence of associated risk factor such as anaemia, low income level, past history of UTI and sexual activity. Key word-associated risk factors, urinary tract infection, pregnant women.
    BMC Research Notes 07/2013; 6(1):292. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-6-292
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