Prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania.
ABSTRACT Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy and these infections. Untreated UTI can be associated with serious obstetric complications. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of UTI among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women attending Bugando Medical centre (BMC) in Mwanza, Tanzania. A total of 247 pregnant women were enrolled, of these 78 (31.5%) were symptomatic and 169 (68.4%) asymptomatic. UTI was diagnosed using mid stream urine (MSU) culture on standard culture media and urinalysis was done using rapid dip stick. The prevalence of bacteriuria among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women were 17.9% and 13.0% respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.307). Using univariate analysis there was no association of parity (p = 0.825), gestational age (p = 0.173), education (p = 0.615), age (p = 0.211) and marital status (p = 0.949) with bacteriuria. The sensitivity and specificity of urine dipstick was 38.9% and 86.7% respectively. Escherichia coli (47.2%) and Enterococcus spp (22.2%) were the most commonly recovered pathogens. The rate of resistance of Escherichia coli to ampicillin, tetracycline, sulfamethaxazole/trimethoprim, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, ceftriaxone, and imipenem were 53%, 58.8%, 64.7%, 5.9%, 11.8%, 5.9%, 29.4% and 0%, respectively. In conclusion, asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women is prevalent in our setting and majority of Escherichia coli are resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, SXT and ceftriaxone. Due to low sensitivity of rapid dip stick, routine urine culture and susceptibility testing is recommended to all pregnant women at booking.
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ABSTRACT: Many women die from complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. In developing countries particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, where access to emergency obstetrical care is often limited, obstetric fistula usually occurs as a result of prolonged obstructed labour. Obstetric fistula patients have many social and health related problems like urinary tract infections (UTIs). Despite this reality there was limited data on prevalence UTIs on those patients in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, drug susceptibility pattern and associated risk factors of UTI among obstetric fistula patients at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from January to May, 2013 at Gondar University Hospital. From each post repair obstetric fistula patients, socio-demographic and UTIs associated risk factors were collected by using a structured questionnaire. After the removal of their catheters, the mid-stream urine was collected and cultured on CLED. After overnight incubation, significant bacteriuria was sub-cultured on Blood Agar Plate (BAP) and MacConkey (MAC). The bacterial species were identified by series of biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done by disc diffusion method. Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. A total of 53 post repair obstetric fistula patients were included for the determination of bacterial isolate and 28 (52.8%) of them had significant bacteriuria. Majority of the bacterial isolates, 26 (92.9%), were gram negative bacteria and the predominant ones were Citrobacter 13 (24.5%) and E.coli 6 (11.3%). Enterobacter, E.coli and Proteus mirabilis were 100% resistant to tetracycline. Enterobacter, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsella pneumonia, Klebsella ozenae and Staphylococcus aureus were also 100% resistant to ceftriaxone. The prevalence of bacterial isolates in obstetric fistula patients was high and majority of the isolates were gram negative bacteria. Even thought the predominant bacterial isolates were Citrobacter and E.coli, all of the bacterial isolates had multiple antibiotic resistance patterns which alert health profession to look better treatment for these patients.BMC Women s Health 01/2014; 14(1):12. · 1.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans, both in the community and hospital settings. It is a serious health problem affecting millions of people each year and is the leading cause of Gram-negative bacteremia. We previously conducted a study on "Urinary Bacterial Profile and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of UTI among Pregnant Women in North West Ethiopia" but the study did not address risk factors associated with urinary tract infection so the aim of the study was to assess associated risk factors UTI among pregnant women in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, North West Ethiopia. A total of 367 pregnant women with and without symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) were included as a study subject from January 2011 to April 2011. Midstream urine samples were collected and processed following standard bacteriological tests. Data concerning associated risk factors were collected using structured questionnaires and were processed and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 16). Result Bivarait analysis of socio-demographic characteristics and associated risk factors of UTI showed that family income level (family monthly income level < 500 birr($37.85); P=0.006, OR=5.581, CI=1.658, 18.793 and 501-1000 birr($37.93-$75.70), P=0.039, OR=3.429, CI=1.065, 11.034), anaemia (P=0.003, OR=4.388, CI=1.776, 10.839), sexual activity (P=0.032, OR=3.520, CI=1.197,10.363) and past history of UTI (P=0.000, OR=3.397, CI=1.672, 6.902) were found to be factors significantly associated with increase prevalence of UTI. In contrast multiparity, history of catheterization, genitourinary abnormality, maternal age, gestational age and educational status were not significantly associated with UTI among pregnant women. In this study UTI was high among pregnant women in the presence of associated risk factor such as anaemia, low income level, past history of UTI and sexual activity. Key word-associated risk factors, urinary tract infection, pregnant women.BMC Research Notes 07/2013; 6(1):292.
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ABSTRACT: A review of the published and unpublished literature on bacterial resistance in human and animals was performed. Sixty-eight articles/reports from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Mozambique, Tanzania and Zambia were reviewed. The majority of these articles were from Tanzania. There is an increasing trend in the incidence of antibiotic resistance; of major concern is the increase in multidrug- resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholera, non-typhoid Salmonella and other pathogens responsible for nosocomial infections. The increase in methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers in the countries under review confirms the spread of these clones worldwide. Clinical microbiology services in these countries need to be strengthened in order to allow a coordinated surveillance for antimicrobial resistance and provide data for local treatment guidelines and for national policies to control antimicrobial resistance. While the present study does not provide conclusive evidence to associate the increasing trend in antibiotic resistance in humans with the use of antibiotics in animals, either as feed additives or veterinary prescription, we strongly recommend a one-health approach of systematic surveillance across the public and animal health sectors, as well as the adherence to the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization)-OIE (World Organization of animal Health) --WHO(World Health Organization) recommendations for non-human antimicrobial usage.Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 10/2013; 12(1):28. · 1.62 Impact Factor