Long-Term Administration of Endothelin Receptor Antagonist Improves Coronary Endothelial Function in Patients With Early Atherosclerosis

Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic Rochester, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.95). 09/2010; 122(10):958-66. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.967406
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Endothelin (ET-1) is one of the most potent vasoconstrictors and plays a seminal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that long-term treatment with an endothelin-A (ET(A)) receptor antagonist improves coronary endothelial function in patients with early coronary atherosclerosis.
Forty-seven patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, nonobstructive coronary artery disease, and coronary endothelial dysfunction were randomized in a double-blind manner to either the ET(A) receptor antagonist atrasentan (10 mg) or placebo for 6 months. Coronary endothelium-dependent vasodilation was examined by infusing acetylcholine (10(-6) to 10(-4) mol/L) in the left anterior descending coronary artery. N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine was administered to a subgroup of patients. Endothelium-independent coronary flow reserve was examined by use of intracoronary adenosine and nitroglycerin. Baseline characteristics and incidence of adverse effects were similar between the 2 groups. There was a significant improvement in percent change of coronary blood flow in response to acetylcholine at 6 months from baseline in the atrasentan group compared with the placebo group (39.67%, 95% confidence interval 23.23% to 68.21%, versus -2.22%, 95% confidence interval -27.37% to 15.28%; P<0.001). No significant difference in the percent change of coronary artery diameter or change in coronary flow reserve was demonstrated. Coronary blood flow, coronary artery diameter, and the effect of N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine were similar between the groups at baseline and at 6 months.
This study demonstrates that 6-month treatment with atrasentan improves coronary microvascular endothelial function and supports the role of the endogenous endothelin system in the regulation of endothelial function in early atherosclerosis in humans. Clinical Trial Registration Information- URL: Unique identifier: NCT00271492.

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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction is a major precursor of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to assess the interrelationships between plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels and cardiovascular risk among young and healthy individuals. We performed a population-based study among 2160 healthy adults aged between 25 and 41 years in the Principality of Liechtenstein. Individuals with prevalent cardiovascular disease, diabetes or a body mass index >35 kg/m(2) were excluded. Plasma ET-1 was measured using a novel high-sensitive, single-molecule counting technology. The relationships between plasma levels of ET-1 and various cardiovascular risk factors were assessed by multivariable regression analyses. Median age of our population was 37 years. Median ET-1 levels across ET-1 quartiles were 1.86, 2.33, 2.76 and 3.48 pg/mL. After multivariable adjustment, there were significant correlations of ET-1 with systolic blood pressure (β per 1-unit increase in log transformed ET-1 2.30 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03; 3.58, p = 0.0004), C-reactive protein (β 0.19 (95% CI 0.03; 0.34, p = 0.021), glomerular filtration rate (β -1.73 (95% CI -3.17; -0.29, p = 0.019), and current smoking (Odds ratio 1.94 (95% CI 1.39; 2.71, p < 0.0001). We also found a highly significant association between ET-1 levels and overall cardiovascular risk estimated by the "Prospective Cardiovascular Münster" (PROCAM) and the Framingham score (β 0.18 (95% CI 0.06; 0.31, p = 0.004, and β 0.11 (95% CI 0.05; 0.16), p < 0.0001, respectively). Plasma ET-1 levels are easily measurable in healthy adults and correlate with major cardiovascular risk factors and global cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent endogenous vasoconstrictor, mainly secreted by endothelial cells. It acts through two types of receptors: ETA and ETB. Apart from a vasoconstrictive action, ET-1 causes fibrosis of the vascular cells and stimulates production of reactive oxygen species. It is claimed that ET-1 induces proinflammatory mechanisms, increasing superoxide anion production and cytokine secretion. A recent study has shown that ET-1 is involved in the activation of transcription factors such as NF-κB and expression of proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6. It has been also indicated that during endotoxaemia, the plasma level of ET-1 is increased in various animal species. Some authors indicate a clear correlation between endothelin plasma level and morbidity/mortality rate in septic patients. These pathological effects of ET-1 may be abrogated at least partly by endothelin receptor blockade. ET-1 receptor antagonists may be useful for prevention of various vascular diseases. This review summarises the current knowledge regarding endothelin receptor antagonists and the role of ET-1 in sepsis and inflammation.
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