Mass Spectrometric Identification of Key Proteolytic Cleavage Sites in Statherin Affecting Mineral Homeostasis and Bacterial Binding Domains

Department of Periodontology and Oral Biology, Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.
Journal of Proteome Research (Impact Factor: 4.25). 10/2010; 9(10):5413-21. DOI: 10.1021/pr100653r
Source: PubMed


Human salivary statherin inhibits both primary and secondary calcium phosphate precipitation and, upon binding to hydroxyapatite, associates with a variety of oral bacteria. These functions, crucial in the maintenance of tooth enamel integrity, are located in defined regions within the statherin molecule. Proteases associated with saliva, however, cleave statherin effectively, and it is of importance to determine how statherin functional domains are affected by these events. Statherin was isolated from human parotid secretion by zinc precipitation and purified by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). To characterize the proteolytic process provoked by oral proteases, statherin was incubated with whole saliva and fragmentation was monitored by RP-HPLC. The early formed peptides were structurally characterized by reversed phase liquid chromatography electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Statherin was degraded 3.6× faster in whole saliva than in whole saliva supernatant. The main and primary cleavage sites were located in the N-terminal half of statherin, specifically after Arg(9), Arg(10), and Arg(13); after Phe(14) and Tyr(18); and after Gly(12), Gly(15), Gly(17) and Gly(19) while the C-terminal half of statherin remained intact. Whole saliva protease activities separated the charged N-terminus from the hydrophobic C-terminus, negatively impacting on full length statherin functions comprising enamel lubrication and inhibition of primary calcium phosphate precipitation. Cryptic epitopes for bacterial binding residing in the C-terminal domain were likewise affected. The full characterization of the statherin peptides generated facilitates the elucidation of their novel functional roles in the oral and gastro-intestinal environment.

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    • "These functions are crucial in the maintenance of tooth enamel integrity. In contrast, in the oral cavity, proteases associated with saliva cleave statherin effectively, which results in a fast degradation of this protein and a virtual loss of its features (Helmerhorst et al. 2010). We have used state-of-the-art proteomics in conjunction with mass spectrometry techniques to identify the composition of the in vivo AEP, resulting in the identification of 130 different AEP proteins from more than 2600 proteins present in saliva (Siqueira et al. 2007; Siqueira et al. 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: In our recent studies, we have shown that in vivo-acquired enamel pellicle is a sophisticated biological structure containing a significant portion of naturally occurring salivary peptides. From a functional aspect, the identification of peptides in the acquired enamel pellicle is of interest because many salivary proteins exhibit functional domains that maintain the activities of the native protein. Among the in vivo-acquired enamel pellicle peptides that have been newly identified, 5 peptides are derived from statherin. Here, we assessed the ability of these statherin pellicle peptides to inhibit hydroxyapatite crystal growth. In addition, atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to better understand the underlying physical mechanisms of hydroxyapatite growth inhibition. A microplate colorimetric assay was used to quantify hydroxyapatite growth. Statherin protein, 5 statherin-derived peptides, and a peptide lacking phosphate at residues 2 and 3 were analyzed. Statherin peptide phosphorylated on residues 2 and 3 indicated a significant inhibitory effect when compared with the 5 other peptides (P < 0.05). MD simulations showed a strong affinity and fast adsorption to hydroxyapatite for phosphopeptides, whereas unphosphorylated peptides interacted weakly with the hydroxyapatite. Our data suggest that the presence of a covalently linked phosphate group (at residues 2 and 3) in statherin peptides modulates the effect of hydroxyapatite growth inhibition. This study provides a mechanism to account for the composition and function of acquired enamel pellicle statherin peptides that will contribute as a base for the development of biologically stable and functional synthetic peptides for therapeutic use against dental caries and/or periodontal disease. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.
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    • "proteases in WS (Castagnola et al., 2004; Campese et al., 2009; Helmerhorst et al., 2010). The ultimate goal is to provide a protocol for optimal conditions during and after saliva collection and to improve the validity of WS biomarker studies. "
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