Dietary free oleic and linoleic acid enhances neutrophil function and modulates the inflammatory response in rats.
ABSTRACT The high ingestion of oleic (OLA) and linoleic (LNA) acids by Western populations, the presence of inflammatory diseases in these populations, and the importance of neutrophils in the inflammatory process led us to investigate the effects of oral ingestion of unesterified OLA and LNA on rat neutrophil function. Pure OLA and LNA were administered by gavage over 10 days. The doses used (0.11, 0.22 and 0.44 g/kg of body weight) were based on the Western consumption of OLA and LNA. Neither fatty acid affected food, calorie or water intake. The fatty acids were not toxic to neutrophils as evaluated by cytometry using propidium iodide (membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation). Neutrophil migration in response to intraperitoneal injection of glycogen and in the air pouch assay, was elevated after administration of either OLA or LNA. This effect was associated with enhancement of rolling and increased release of the chemokine CINC-2alphabeta. Both fatty acids elevated L-selectin expression, whereas no effect on beta(2)-integrin expression was observed, as evaluated by flow cytometry. LNA increased the production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta and CINC-2alphabeta) by neutrophils after 4 h in culture and both fatty acids decreased the release of the same cytokines after 18 h. In conclusion, OLA and LNA modulate several functions of neutrophils and can influence the inflammatory process.
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ABSTRACT: The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementing saturated or unsaturated fatty acids (FA) during late gestation of cows and during the preweaning period of calves on growth, health, and immune responses of calves. During the last 8 wk of pregnancy, Holstein cattle (n = 96) were fed no fat supplement (control), a saturated FA (SFA) supplement enriched in C18:0, or an unsaturated FA supplement enriched in the essential FA linoleic acid. Newborn calves were fed a milk replacer (MR) with either low linoleic acid (LLA; coconut oil) or high linoleic acid (HLA; coconut oil and porcine lard) concentration as the sole feedstuff during the first 30 d. A grain mix with minimal linoleic acid was offered between 31 and 60 d of life. At 30 and 60 d of life, concentrations of linoleic acid in plasma were increased in calves born from dams supplemented with essential FA compared with SFA (44.0 vs. 42.5% of total FA) and in calves consuming HLA compared with LLA MR (46.3 vs. 40.8% of total FA). Total n-3 FA concentration was increased in plasma of calves fed HLA compared with LLA MR (1.44 vs. 1.32%) primarily due to increased α-linolenic acid. Prepartum supplementation with SFA tended to improve dry matter intake (48.8 vs. 46.7 kg) and improved average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.46 kg/d) by calves without affecting efficiency of gain or circulating concentrations of anabolic metabolites or hormones. Increasing mean intake of linoleic acid from approximately 4.6 to 11.0 g/d during the first 60 d of life increased average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.45 kg/d) without a change in dry matter intake, thus improving feed efficiency (0.63 vs. 0.59 kg of gain/kg of dry matter intake). Improved weight gain in calves fed HLA MR was accompanied by increased or tendency to increase plasma concentrations of glucose (92.7 vs. 89.9 g/dL) and insulin-like growth factor I (59.5 vs. 53.2 g/dL), increased hematocrit (36.0 vs. 34.4%) and concentration of blood lymphocytes (4.61 vs. 4.21 × 10(3)/μL), lowered plasma concentrations of acid-soluble protein (78.8 vs. 91.3 mg/L) and blood platelets (736 vs. 822 × 10(3)/μL), and increased production of IFN-γ by peripheral blood mononuclear cells at 30 d of age (48.1 vs. 25.6 pg/mL), possibly indicating an earlier development of the immune system. Partial replacement of coconut oil with porcine lard in MR improved calf performance and some aspects of immunity.Journal of dairy science. 06/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Supplementation with olive and fish oils reverses the effects of stress on behavioral activities and adrenal activation. However, previous studies have not shown whether supplementation with olive and fish oil could inhibit the effects of stress on cutaneous wound healing. Thus, this study investigated the effects of supplementation with fish or olive oil on cutaneous healing in stressed mice. Mice were subjected to rotational stress and treated with olive or fish oil daily until euthanasia. An excisional lesion was created on each mouse, and 14 days later, the lesions were analyzed. In addition, murine skin fibroblasts were exposed to elevated epinephrine levels plus olive oil, and fibroblast activity was evaluated. In the in vivo studies, administration of olive oil, but not fish oil, inhibited stress-induced reduction in wound contraction, reepithelialization, hydroxyproline levels, and blood vessel density. Stress-induced increases in vascular endothelial growth factor expression and the numbers of macrophages and neutrophils were reversed only by olive oil. Both oils reversed stress-induced increase in catecholamine levels and oxidative damage. In in vitro studies, olive oil treatment reversed the reduction in fibroblast migration and collagen deposition and the increase in lipid peroxidation induced by epinephrine. In conclusion, supplementation with olive oil, but not fish oil, improves cutaneous wound healing in chronically stressed mice.Wound Repair and Regeneration 07/2014; 22(4). · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Joannesia princeps (Cotieira) is a well known medicinal plant in Brazil, however, the therapeutic effects of oil obtained from its seeds have still not been demonstrated. The beneficial effects of J. princeps seed oil on cutaneous wound healing on the back of experimental mice were investigated. An excisional lesion in male Swiss mice (n = 20 per group) was topically treated with mineral oil or J. princeps seed oil once a day beginning on the day of lesion until the third day after wounding. Animals were killed and lesions collected after 14 days. Murine skin fibroblast cultures were treated with J. princeps seed oil and fibroblast activity was evaluated. In the in vivo assay, J. princeps seed oil increased wound contraction and migratory tongue length, but reduced neutrophil and macrophage number when compared with the control group. Blood vessel number, collagen deposition, and VEGF levels were increased in treated lesions when compared with control lesions. However, J. princeps seed oil reduced myofibroblast density and carbonyl protein levels when compared with the control group. In the in vitro assay, treatment with J. princeps seed oil increased fibroblast migration and proliferation, but reduced myofibroblastic differentiation in vitro. In conclusion, J. princeps seed oil accelerates wound closure increasing angiogenesis, keratinocyte migration, and fibroblast activity while reducing inflammatory response and oxidative damage.Acta Histochemica. 01/2014;