Non-verbal reasoning ability and academic achievement as moderators of the relation between adverse life events and emotional and behavioural problems in early adolescence: the importance of moderator and outcome specificity.
ABSTRACT This study was carried out to model the functional form of the effect of contextual risk (number of adverse life events) on emotional and behavioural problems in early adolescence, and to test how intelligence and academic achievement compare as moderators of this effect. The effect of number of adverse life events on emotional and behavioural problems was non-quadratic. Intelligence rather than academic achievement moderated the association between contextual risk and children's emotional and behavioural problems. However, the interaction effect was significant only on peer problems. These findings suggest that both moderator and outcome specificity should be considered when evaluating the role of intellectual competence in the association between contextual risk and children's emotional and behavioural problems.
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ABSTRACT: The study of resilience in development has overturned many negative assumptions and deficit-focused models about children growing up under the threat of disadvantage and adversity. The most surprising conclusion emerging from studies of these children is the ordinariness of resilience. An examination of converging findings from variable-focused and person-focused investigations of these phenomena suggests that resilience is common and that it usually arises from the normative functions of human adaptational systems, with the greatest threats to human development being those that compromise these protective systems. The conclusion that resilience is made of ordinary rather than extraordinary processes offers a more positive outlook on human development and adaptation, as well as direction for policy and practice aimed at enhancing the development of children at risk for problems and psychopathology.American Psychologist 04/2001; 56(3):227-38. DOI:10.1037/0003-066X.56.3.227 · 6.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Competent outcomes in late adolescence were examined in relation to adversity over time, antecedent competence and psychosocial resources, in order to investigate the phenomenon of resilience. An urban community sample of 205 (114 females, 90 males; 27% minority) children were recruited in elementary school and followed over 10 years. Multiple methods and informants were utilized to assess three major domains of competence from childhood through adolescence (academic achievement, conduct, and peer social competence), multiple aspects of adversity, and major psychosocial resources. Both variable-centered and person-centered analyses were conducted to test the hypothesized significance of resources for resilience. Better intellectual functioning and parenting resources were associated with good outcomes across competence domains, even in the context of severe, chronic adversity. IQ and parenting appeared to have a specific protective role with respect to antisocial behavior. Resilient adolescents (high adversity, adequate competence across three domains) had much in common with their low-adversity competent peers, including average or better IQ, parenting, and psychological well-being. Resilient individuals differed markedly from their high adversity, maladaptive peers who had few resources and high negative emotionality. Results suggest that IQ and parenting scores are markers of fundamental adaptational systems that protect child development in the context of severe adversity.Development and Psychopathology 02/1999; 11(1):143-69. DOI:10.1017/S0954579499001996 · 4.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Based upon,the evidence that the best chess players in the world are becoming,increasingly represented by relatively young individuals, Howard [Intelligence 27 (1999) 235–250.] claimed that human,intelligence is rising over generations. We suggest that this explanation has several difficulties and show that alternative explanations relating to changes in the chess environment, including increased access to chess knowledge, offer better explanations for the increased presence of young players at top-level chess. D 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Age; Chess; Expertise; Flynn’s effect; Environment; Extreme-value distribution; Intelligence; IQ;The American Journal of Human Genetics 01/1999; 65:1476-1477. · 10.99 Impact Factor