Recent advances in the management of chronic stable angina I: approach to the patient, diagnosis, pathophysiology, risk stratification, and gender disparities.

The Cardiometabolic Research Institute, Houston, Texas 77054, USA.
Vascular Health and Risk Management 01/2010; 6:635-56.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The potential importance of both prevention and personal responsibility in controlling heart disease, the leading cause of death in the USA and elsewhere, has attracted renewed attention. Coronary artery disease is preventable, using relatively simple and inexpensive lifestyle changes. The inexorable rise in the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, often in the risk cluster known as the metabolic syndrome, drives the ever-increasing incidence of heart disease. Population-wide improvements in personal health habits appear to be a fundamental, evidence based public health measure, yet numerous barriers prevent implementation. A common symptom in patients with coronary artery disease, classical angina refers to the typical chest pressure or discomfort that results when myocardial oxygen demand rises and coronary blood flow is reduced by fixed, atherosclerotic, obstructive lesions. Different forms of angina and diagnosis, with a short description of the significance of pain and silent ischemia, are discussed in this review. The well accepted concept of myocardial oxygen imbalance in the genesis of angina is presented with new data about clinical pathology of stable angina and acute coronary syndromes. The roles of stress electrocardiography and stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphic imaging are reviewed, along with the information these tests provide about risk and prognosis. Finally, the current status of gender disparities in heart disease is summarized. Enhanced risk stratification and identification of patients in whom procedures will meaningfully change management is an ongoing quest. Current guidelines emphasize efficient triage of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Many experts believe the predictive value of current decision protocols for coronary artery disease still needs improvement in order to optimize outcomes, yet avoid unnecessary coronary angiograms and radiation exposure. Coronary angiography remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of coronary artery obstructive disease. Part II of this two part series will address anti-ischemic therapies, new agents, cardiovascular risk reduction, options to treat refractory angina, and revascularization.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is highly prevalent in rheumatic diseases and is recognized as a new independent cardiovascular risk factor. This study was undertaken to determine the clinical significance of MetS in patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Seventy-one primary APS patients and 73 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included. Serum samples were tested for lipid profile, Lp(a), glucose, insulin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free T4, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein level, and uric acid. MetS was defined by the International Diabetes Federation criteria, and insulin resistance was established using the homeostasis model assessment index. The prevalence of MetS was 33.8%, and further comparison between primary APS patients with and without MetS revealed that the former had a higher frequency of arterial events (79.2% versus 42.6%; P = 0.003), angina (29.2% versus 2.1%; P = 0.002), and positive lupus anticoagulant antibody (95.8% versus 76.6%; P = 0.049). In addition, primary APS patients with MetS, as expected, had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. On multivariate analysis, only MetS was independently associated with arterial events in primary APS. Coexistence of primary APS and MetS seems to identify a subgroup of patients with higher risk of arterial events, suggesting that MetS may aggravate existing endothelial abnormalities of primary APS.
    Arthritis care & research. 04/2012; 64(10):1576-83.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Management of chronic angina has evolved dramatically in the last few decades with several options for pharmacotherapy outlined in various evidence-based guidelines. Areas covered: There is a growing list of drugs that are currently being investigated for treatment of chronic angina. These also include several herbal medications, which are now being scientifically evaluated as potential alternative or even adjunctive therapy for angina. Gene- and cell-based therapies have opened yet another avenue for management of chronic refractory angina in 'no-option' patients who are not candidates for either percutaneous or surgical revascularization and are on optimal medical therapy. An extensive review of literature using PUBMED, Cochrane database, clinical trial databases of the USA and European Union was done and summarized in this review. This review will attempt to discuss the traditional as well as novel therapeutic agents for angina. Expert opinion: Several pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapeutic options are now available for treatment and management of chronic refractory angina. Renewed interest in traditional therapies and cell- and gene-based modalities with targeted drug delivery systems will open the doors for personalized therapy for patients with chronic refractory angina.
    Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 09/2013; · 2.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To study whether miR-214 is regulated in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and whether placental growth factor (PLGF) is a possible target for miR-214 in atherosclerosis. Circulating miR-214 was measured by quantitative PCR using RNA isolated from 40 patients with CAD, including 12 with stable angina pectoris, 16 with unstable angina pectoris and 12 with acute myocardial infarction, and 15 controls without CAD. Plasma level of PLGF was measured by ELISA. The miR-214 level was significantly lower in CAD patients compared with that in controls (P < 0.01). Compared to controls, patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP, 38.6±9.1 pg/mL) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI, 46.3±13.4 pg/mL) had significantly higher level of plasma PLGF, but not those with stable angina pectoris (SAP; P = 0.012, UAP vs. Control; P = 0.005, AMI vs. Control). In patients with AMI, the plasma level of miR-214 was positively correlated to that of PLGF. The results suggest that miR-214 is a beneficial microRNA for CAD patients. Loss of its protection may lead to increased PLGF levels and worsening atherosclerosis. Circulating miR-214 is a promising biomarker for alerting severe CAD.
    Journal of Geriatric Cardiology 03/2013; 10(1):34-8.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 20, 2014