A note on modeling pedestrian-injury severity in motor-vehicle crashes with the mixed logit model.
ABSTRACT Pedestrian-injury severity has been traditionally modeled with approaches that have assumed that the effect of each variable is fixed across injury observations. This assumption ignores possible unobserved heterogeneity which is likely to be particularly important in pedestrian injuries because unobserved physical health, strength, and behavior may significantly affect the pedestrians' ability to absorb collision forces. To address such unobserved heterogeneity, this research applies a mixed logit model to analyze pedestrian-injury severity in pedestrian-vehicle crashes. Using police-reported collision data from 1997 through 2000 from North Carolina, several factors were found to more than double the average probability of fatal injury for pedestrians in motor-vehicle crashes including: darkness without streetlights (400% increase in fatality probability), vehicle is a truck (370% increase), freeway (330% increase), speeding involved (360% increase), and collisions involving a motorist who had been drinking (250% increase). It was also found that the effect of pedestrian age was normally distributed across observations, and that as pedestrians became older the probability of fatal injury increased substantially. Heterogeneity in the mean of the random parameters for the freeway and pedestrian-solely-at-fault collision indicators was related to pedestrian gender, and heterogeneity in the mean of the random parameters for the traffic-sign and motorist-back-up indicators was related to pedestrian age.
- SourceAvailable from: caee.utexas.eduTransportation Research Part B Methodological 04/2013; 50. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study analyzes the problem of conflicting travel time and emissions minimization in context of daily travel decisions. The conflict occurs because the least travel time option does not always lead to least emissions for the trip. Experiments are designed and conducted to collect data on daily trips. Random parameter (mixed) logit models accounting for correlations among repeated observations are estimated to find the trade-off between emissions and travel time. Our results show that the trade-off values vary with contexts such as route and departure time choice scenarios. Further, we find that the trade-off values are different for population groups representing male, female, individuals from high income households, and individuals who prefer bike for daily commute. Based on the findings, several policies are proposed that can help to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation networks. This is one of the first exploratory studies that analyzes travel decisions and the corresponding trade-off when emissions related information are provided to the road users.Transportation Research Part D Transport and Environment 10/2014; 32:334–353. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The number of pedestrian–motor vehicle accidents and pedestrian deaths in China surged in recent years. However, a large scale empirical research on pedestrian traffic crashes in China is lacking. In this study, we identify significant risk factors associated with fault and severity in pedestrian–motor vehicle accidents. Risk factors in several different dimensions, including pedestrian, driver, vehicle, road and environmental factors, are considered. We analyze 6967 pedestrian traffic accident reports for the period 2006–2010 in Guangdong Province, China. These data, obtained from the Guangdong Provincial Security Department, are extracted from the Traffic Management Sector-Specific Incident Case Data Report. Pedestrian traffic crashes have a unique inevitability and particular high risk, due to pedestrians’ fragility, slow movement and lack of lighting equipment. The empirical analysis of the present study has the following policy implications. First, traffic crashes in which pedestrians are at fault are more likely to cause serious injuries or death, suggesting that relevant agencies should pay attention to measures that prevent pedestrians from violating traffic rules. Second, both the attention to elderly pedestrians, male and experienced drivers, the penalty to drunk driving, speeding, driving without a driver's license and other violation behaviors should be strengthened. Third, vehicle safety inspections and safety training sessions for truck drivers should be reinforced. Fourth, improving the road conditions and road lighting at night are important measures in reducing the probability of accident casualties. Fifth, specific road safety campaigns in rural areas, and education programs especially for young children and teens should be developed and promoted. Moreover, we reveal a country-specific factor, hukou, which has significant effect on the severity in pedestrian accidents due to the discrepancy in the level of social insurance/security, suggesting that equal social security level among urban and rural people should be set up. In addition, establishing a comprehensive liability distribution system for non-urban areas and roadways will be conducive to both pedestrians’ and drivers’ voluntary compliance with traffic rules.Accident Analysis & Prevention 09/2014; 73:141–150. · 1.87 Impact Factor