Molecular cloning and characterization of Toll-like receptor 14 in Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.
ABSTRACT Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential for activation of the innate immune system in response to invading pathogens. TLR14, which is unique to fish, has been identified in several fish species, but its function is unclear. In this study, Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) TLR14 gene (JfTLR14) was cloned and its expression profiles were analyzed after infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, gram-positive Streptococcus iniae and gram-negative Edwardsiella tarda. The coding region of JfTLR14 cDNA was 2,607 bp, encoding 878 amino acid residues. JfTLR14 was highly expressed in head kidney of healthy flounder. In response to infection with VHSV and S. iniae, the JfTLR14 gene was up-regulated at only 1 day post-infection (dpi). However, E. tarda infection increased JfTLR14 gene expression from 1 to 6 dpi. These results imply that JfTLR14 participates more in the immune response against E. tarda infection than in the immune responses to other pathogen infections.
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ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) is present in teleost but not in mammals. Among Indian farmed carps, Catla catla is relatively more resistant than Labeo rohita to Argulus siamensis lice infection. TLR22 is believed to be associated with innate immunity against ectoparasite infection. To investigate the TLR22 mediated immunity against argulosis, we have cloned and characterized TLR22 genes of L. rohita (rTLR22) and C. catla (cTLR22). The full-length cDNAs of rTLR22 and cTLR22 contained an open reading frame of 2838 and 2841 nucleotides, respectively; bearing the typical structural features. Phylogenetically rTLR22/cTLR22 was most closely related to Cyprinus carpio (common carp) counterpart, having highest sequence identity of 86.0%. The TIR domain remained highly conserved with 90% identity within freshwater fishes. The sequence information of cDNA and genomic DNA together revealed that the rTLR22/cTLR22 genes are encoded by uninterrupted exons. The co-habitation challenge study with A. siamensis infection confirmed that C. catla is comparatively more resistant than L. rohita. Further, comparative mRNA expression profile in immune relevant tissues also suggested about the participatory role of TLR22 during lice infection. However, TLR22 might not solely be involved in conferring relative resistance among carp species against argulosis.Developmental and comparative immunology. 07/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Tollip and IRAK-1 are key components of the TLR/IL-1R signaling pathway in mammals, which play crucial roles as mediators of the TLR/IL-1R signal transduction pathways. Although several TLRs have been found in fish, molecular associations, protein-protein interactions or the role of the TLR signaling pathway in infection-induced immunity in fish has received little attention. In this study, Tollip and IRAK-1 sequences of grass carp were isolated from a head kidney cDNA library. Full length transcripts and sequences of promoter regions were obtained by 3' and 5' RACE and genome walking, respectively. Reporter gene-promoter constructs and real-time RT-PCR analysis was used to determine grass carp Tollip and IRAK-1 transcription pattern in tissues. Recombinant proteins were used for antibodies production. Phylogenetically, the grass carp loci clustered with previously reported Tollip and IRAK-1genes, respectively, and their sequences shared the highest identity with the genes of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The promoter region of grass carp Tollip and IRAK-1 proved to be active. After viral infection transcript levels of both loci were upregulated in most immune-related tissues in a time-dependent manner. Using antibodies produced in this study, immunofluorescence analysis indicated that Tollip and IRAK-1 were uniformly distributed and co-localized in the cytoplasm of CIK cells. After viral infection, however, Tollip and IRAK-1 both trended toward the cell membrane. Our results demonstrate the existence of Tollip and IRAK-1 proteins in teleost species, and suggest that Tollip-IRAK-1 complexes are being recruited to receptor complexes after stimulation with virus. These results provide novel insights into the role of the TLR signaling pathway in teleosts, especially the action of teleost Tollip and IRAK-1 and the interaction of these molecules as part of this pathway.Fish & Shellfish Immunology 05/2012; 33(3):459-67. · 2.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During the past decade, huge progress has been made in research into teleost PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecule patterns) recognition receptors (PRRs). Numerous fish PRR genes have been identified, and the primordial functions of PRRs involved in the innate immune response to viral infection (especially those responsible for sensing viral RNA) have been increasingly clarified in teleosts. Particular progress has been made in our understanding of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs). However, there are important evolutionary differences between teleosts and mammals; for instance, seven TLR repertoires (TLR5S, -14, -19, -20, -21, -22 and -23) are present in teleosts but not in mammals, indicating that some TLRs likely possess different functions. Thus, comparison of PRRs in teleosts and mammals may help us understand the immune responses triggered by host-pathogen interactions in teleosts. In this article, the evolutionary conservations and divergences in the PRR mechanisms of teleosts and mammals are examined, with a focus on their molecular features and the recognition of viral RNA by fish TLRs and RLRs. In addition, the mechanism of type I interferon gene expression in teleosts, which is enhanced after the recognition of viral RNA by fish TLRs and RLRs, is also introduced.Fish & Shellfish Immunology 02/2013; · 2.96 Impact Factor