A prospective study of the impact of smoking on outcomes in bipolar and schizoaffective disorder.
ABSTRACT Tobacco smoking is more prevalent among people with mental illnesses, including bipolar disorder, than in the general community. Most data are cross-sectional, and there are no prospective trials examining the relationship of smoking to outcome in bipolar disorder. The impact of tobacco smoking on mental health outcomes was investigated in a 24-month, naturalistic, longitudinal study of 240 people with bipolar disorder or schizoaffective disorder.
Participants were interviewed and data recorded by trained study clinicians at 9 interviews during the study period.
Comparisons were made between participants who smoked daily (n = 122) and the remaining study participants (n = 117). During the 24-month study period, the daily smokers had poorer scores on the Clinical Global Impressions-Depression (P = .034) and Clinical Global Impressions-Overall Bipolar (P = .026) scales and had lengthier stays in hospital (P = .012), compared with nonsmokers.
Smoking status was determined by self-report. Nicotine dependence was not measured.
These findings suggest that smoking is associated with poorer mental health outcomes in bipolar and schizoaffective disorder.
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ABSTRACT: Background Historically, the focus of Non Communicable Disease (NCD) prevention and control has been cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. Collectively, these account for more deaths than any other NCDs. Despite recent calls to include the common mental disorders (CMDs) of depression and anxiety under the NCD umbrella, prevention and control of these CMDs remain largely separate and independent.DiscussionIn order to address this gap, we apply a framework recently proposed by the Centers for Disease Control with three overarching objectives: (1) to obtain better scientific information through surveillance, epidemiology, and prevention research; (2) to disseminate this information to appropriate audiences through communication and education; and (3) to translate this information into action through programs, policies, and systems. We conclude that a shared framework of this type is warranted, but also identify opportunities within each objective to advance this agenda and consider the potential benefits of this approach that may exist beyond the health care system.BMC Psychiatry 02/2015; 15(1):15. DOI:10.1186/s12888-015-0394-0 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alcohol and tobacco have been suggested to be "aggravating factors" for neuroprogression in bipolar disorder (BD), however the impact of these substances on the underlying neurobiology is limited. Oxidative stress is a key target for research into neuroprogression in BD and in accordance with this model, our previous cross-sectional studies have found that risky alcohol and tobacco use in BD is associated with increased oxidative stress, investigated via in vivo glutathione (GSH) measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). What remains unknown is whether the negative impact on GSH levels can be modified as a result of limiting alcohol and tobacco use. Thirty BD patients were included in the study. (1)H-MRS and tobacco and alcohol measures were conducted at baseline and follow-up assessments (15.5±4.6 months apart). Pearson׳s correlations were performed between percentage change in GSH concentration and changes in alcohol/tobacco use. Regression analyses were then conducted to further explore the significant correlations. An increase in GSH was associated with a decrease in alcohol consumption (r=-0.381, p<0.05) and frequency of tobacco use (-0.367, p=0.05). Change in alcohol consumption, tobacco use and age were significant predictors of change in GSH concentration (F (3, 26)=3.69, p<0.05). Due to the high comorbidity of alcohol and tobacco use in the sample, the individual effects of these substances on GSH levels could not be determined. This study offers longitudinal evidence that changing risky drinking patterns and tobacco use early in the course of BD is associated with improvements in antioxidant capacity, and therefore may be specific targets for early intervention and prevention of neuroprogression in BD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of Affective Disorders 01/2015; 175C:481-487. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.01.021 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite evidence that exercise has been found to be effective in the treatment of depression, it is unclear whether these data can be extrapolated to bipolar disorder. Available evidence for bipolar disorder is scant, with no existing randomized controlled trials having tested the impact of exercise on depressive, manic or hypomanic symptomatology. Although exercise is often recommended in bipolar disorder, this is based on extrapolation from the unipolar literature, theory and clinical expertise and not empirical evidence. In addition, there are currently no available empirical data on program variables, with practical implications on frequency, intensity and type of exercise derived from unipolar depression studies. The aim of the current paper is to explore the relationship between exercise and bipolar disorder and potential mechanistic pathways. Given the high rate of medical co-morbidities experienced by people with bipolar disorder, it is possible that exercise is a potentially useful and important intervention with regard to general health benefits; however, further research is required to elucidate the impact of exercise on mood symptomology.Frontiers in Psychology 03/2015; 6:147. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00147 · 2.80 Impact Factor