A prospective study of the impact of smoking on outcomes in bipolar and schizoaffective disorder.
ABSTRACT Tobacco smoking is more prevalent among people with mental illnesses, including bipolar disorder, than in the general community. Most data are cross-sectional, and there are no prospective trials examining the relationship of smoking to outcome in bipolar disorder. The impact of tobacco smoking on mental health outcomes was investigated in a 24-month, naturalistic, longitudinal study of 240 people with bipolar disorder or schizoaffective disorder.
Participants were interviewed and data recorded by trained study clinicians at 9 interviews during the study period.
Comparisons were made between participants who smoked daily (n = 122) and the remaining study participants (n = 117). During the 24-month study period, the daily smokers had poorer scores on the Clinical Global Impressions-Depression (P = .034) and Clinical Global Impressions-Overall Bipolar (P = .026) scales and had lengthier stays in hospital (P = .012), compared with nonsmokers.
Smoking status was determined by self-report. Nicotine dependence was not measured.
These findings suggest that smoking is associated with poorer mental health outcomes in bipolar and schizoaffective disorder.
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ABSTRACT: Detailed characteristics of depressive smokers and its association with suicidality were still less investigated. The aim of this study was to delineate characteristics of smokers with major depressive disorder (MDD) and examine the relationship between these characteristics and suicidality using an epidemiologic database, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). A total of 5695 subjects with MDD, defined by the DSM-IV criteria, were included in our analysis. Current smokers, former smokers, and lifetime nonsmokers were compared in terms of demographic, clinical characteristics, and functional level. Suicidality, evaluated by history of suicide ideation and attempts while in a low mood was evaluated and compared among the groups. Current smokers with MDD showed a greater number of DSM-IV symptoms while in acute episodes, a higher rate of alcohol and drug-use disorders, and poorer functional levels than nonsmokers. Previous smokers displayed intermediate characteristics between current smokers and nonsmokers. The logistic regression analysis revealed that both current and former smoking status predicted the risk of having a history of attempted suicide (current smokers: odds ratio 1.62, 95% C.I. 1.42-1.86; former smokers: odds ratio 1.37, 95% C.I. 1.13-1.66) after adjusting for demographic data, a history of subthreshold hypomania, and a lifetime axis II/anxiety/alcohol use/substance-use disorder. Retrospective, cross-sectional evaluation; suicidality assessed only in the most severe depressive episode. The present study corroborates that smokers with MDD showed distinct clinical characteristics, and cigarette smoking can predict attempted suicide in a community representative sample of people with MDD.Journal of affective disorders 07/2013; · 3.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Risky alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking is highly prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD) and is associated with increased formation of neural reactive oxygen species. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) is an in vivo imaging modality that allows quantification of glutathione (GSH) concentration, the brains primary antioxidant. Sixty-four patients with BD and 49 controls (18-30 years) completed self-report questionnaires regarding alcohol and tobacco use and underwent (1)H-MRS. Levels of GSH in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were determined. Within-group Pearson's correlations were used to explore the relationship between alcohol use and GSH concentration for BD and controls, covarying for age, gender, family history of alcohol dependence and smoking status. Relationships between GSH and presence/severity of alcohol-induced blackouts were determined using Spearman's correlations. In BD, reduced hippocampal-GSH associated with higher alcohol use (R = -0.489, p < 0.021). Reduction of ACC-GSH with increased drinking was non-significant when controlling for tobacco use. Independent samples t-test revealed a significantly decreased ACC-GSH in smokers with BD (t (53) = 4.162, p < 0.001). In controls, alcohol use was not correlated to GSH in either region. In both patients and controls, reduced hippocampal-GSH was associated with blackout presence/severity, supporting a role for the hippocampus in the continuum of alcohol-induced memory impairments. Our preliminary findings suggest that in youth with BD reduced hippocampal-GSH is associated with risky alcohol use and alcohol and tobacco use is associated with reduced ACC-GSH, highlighting the role of these substances as modifiable risk factors for decreased anti-oxidant capacity in BD.Journal of Psychiatric Research 04/2014; · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Lifestyle medicine for depression.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. "Lifestyle Medicine" provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still advocated, due to the complexity of human illness/wellbeing, the emerging evidence encourages a more integrative approach for depression, and an acknowledgment that lifestyle modification should be a routine part of treatment and preventative efforts.BMC Psychiatry 04/2014; 14(1):107. · 2.23 Impact Factor