A prospective study of the impact of smoking on outcomes in bipolar and schizoaffective disorder.
ABSTRACT Tobacco smoking is more prevalent among people with mental illnesses, including bipolar disorder, than in the general community. Most data are cross-sectional, and there are no prospective trials examining the relationship of smoking to outcome in bipolar disorder. The impact of tobacco smoking on mental health outcomes was investigated in a 24-month, naturalistic, longitudinal study of 240 people with bipolar disorder or schizoaffective disorder.
Participants were interviewed and data recorded by trained study clinicians at 9 interviews during the study period.
Comparisons were made between participants who smoked daily (n = 122) and the remaining study participants (n = 117). During the 24-month study period, the daily smokers had poorer scores on the Clinical Global Impressions-Depression (P = .034) and Clinical Global Impressions-Overall Bipolar (P = .026) scales and had lengthier stays in hospital (P = .012), compared with nonsmokers.
Smoking status was determined by self-report. Nicotine dependence was not measured.
These findings suggest that smoking is associated with poorer mental health outcomes in bipolar and schizoaffective disorder.
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Article: Tobacco Use in Bipolar Disorder[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tobacco use in mental health in general and bipolar disorder in particular remains disproportionally common, despite declining smoking rates in the community. Furthermore, interactions between tobacco use and mental health have been shown, indicating the outcomes for those with mental health disorders are impacted by tobacco use. Factors need to be explored and addressed to improve outcomes for those with these disorders and target specific interventions for people with psychiatric illness to cease tobacco smoking. In the context of bipolar disorder, this review explores; the effects of tobacco smoking on symptoms, quality of life, suicidal behavior, the biological interactions between tobacco use and bipolar disorder, the interactions between tobacco smoking and psychiatric medications, rates and factors surrounding tobacco smoking cessation in bipolar disorder and suggests potential directions for research and clinical translation. The importance of this review is to bring together the current understanding of tobacco use in bipolar disorder to highlight the need for specific intervention.Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience 04/2015; 13(1):1-11. DOI:10.9758/cpn.2015.13.1.1
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ABSTRACT: Despite evidence that exercise has been found to be effective in the treatment of depression, it is unclear whether these data can be extrapolated to bipolar disorder. Available evidence for bipolar disorder is scant, with no existing randomized controlled trials having tested the impact of exercise on depressive, manic or hypomanic symptomatology. Although exercise is often recommended in bipolar disorder, this is based on extrapolation from the unipolar literature, theory and clinical expertise and not empirical evidence. In addition, there are currently no available empirical data on program variables, with practical implications on frequency, intensity and type of exercise derived from unipolar depression studies. The aim of the current paper is to explore the relationship between exercise and bipolar disorder and potential mechanistic pathways. Given the high rate of medical co-morbidities experienced by people with bipolar disorder, it is possible that exercise is a potentially useful and important intervention with regard to general health benefits; however, further research is required to elucidate the impact of exercise on mood symptomology.Frontiers in Psychology 03/2015; 6:147. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00147 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alcohol and tobacco have been suggested to be "aggravating factors" for neuroprogression in bipolar disorder (BD), however the impact of these substances on the underlying neurobiology is limited. Oxidative stress is a key target for research into neuroprogression in BD and in accordance with this model, our previous cross-sectional studies have found that risky alcohol and tobacco use in BD is associated with increased oxidative stress, investigated via in vivo glutathione (GSH) measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). What remains unknown is whether the negative impact on GSH levels can be modified as a result of limiting alcohol and tobacco use. Thirty BD patients were included in the study. (1)H-MRS and tobacco and alcohol measures were conducted at baseline and follow-up assessments (15.5±4.6 months apart). Pearson׳s correlations were performed between percentage change in GSH concentration and changes in alcohol/tobacco use. Regression analyses were then conducted to further explore the significant correlations. An increase in GSH was associated with a decrease in alcohol consumption (r=-0.381, p<0.05) and frequency of tobacco use (-0.367, p=0.05). Change in alcohol consumption, tobacco use and age were significant predictors of change in GSH concentration (F (3, 26)=3.69, p<0.05). Due to the high comorbidity of alcohol and tobacco use in the sample, the individual effects of these substances on GSH levels could not be determined. This study offers longitudinal evidence that changing risky drinking patterns and tobacco use early in the course of BD is associated with improvements in antioxidant capacity, and therefore may be specific targets for early intervention and prevention of neuroprogression in BD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of Affective Disorders 01/2015; 175C:481-487. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.01.021 · 3.71 Impact Factor