Fibroblast and prostate tumor cell cross-talk: Fibroblast differentiation, TGF-beta, and extracellular matrix down-regulation
ABSTRACT Growth and survival of tumors at a site of metastasis involve interactions with stromal cells in the surrounding environment. Stromal cells aid tumor cell growth by producing cytokines as well as by modifying the environment surrounding the tumor through modulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) are biologically active components of the ECM which can be altered in the stroma surrounding tumors. The influence tumor cells have on stromal cells has been well elucidated. However, little is understood about the effect metastatic cancer cells have on the cell biology and behavior of the local stromal cells. Our data reveal a significant down-regulation in the expression of ECM components such as collagens I, II, III, and IV, and the SLRPs, decorin, biglycan, lumican, and fibromodulin in stromal cells when grown in the presence of two metastatic prostate cancer cell lines PC3 and DU145. Interestingly, TGF-β down-regulation was observed in stromal cells, as well as actin depolymerization and increased vimentin and α5β1 integrin expression. MT1-MMP expression was upregulated and localized in stromal cell protrusions which extended into the ECM. Moreover, enhanced stromal cell migration was observed after cross-talk with metastatic prostate tumor cells. Xenografting metastatic prostate cancer cells together with "activated" stromal cells led to increased tumorigenicity of the prostate cancer cells. Our findings suggest that metastatic prostate cancer cells create a metastatic niche by altering the phenotype of local stromal cells, leading to changes in the ECM.
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ABSTRACT: Rapidly developing proteomic tools are improving detection of deregulated kallikrein-related peptidase (KLK) expression, at the protein level, in prostate and ovarian cancer, as well as facilitating the determination of functional consequences downstream. Mass spectrometry (MS)-driven proteomics uniquely allows for the detection, identification and quantification of thousands of proteins in a complex protein pool, and this has served to identify certain KLKs as biomarkers for these diseases. In this review we describe applications of this technology in KLK biomarker discovery, and elucidate MS-based techniques which have been used for unbiased, global screening of KLK substrates within complex protein pools. Although MS-based KLK degradomic studies are limited to date, they helped to discover an array of novel KLK substrates. Substrates identified by MS-based degradomics are reported with improved confidence over those determined by incubating a purified or recombinant substrate and protease of interest, in vitro. We propose that these novel proteomic approaches represent the way forward for KLK research, in order to correlate proteolysis of biological substrates with tissue-related consequences, toward clinical targeting of KLK expression and function for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.PROTEOMICS - CLINICAL APPLICATIONS 06/2014; 8(5-6). DOI:10.1002/prca.201300098 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The consecutive steps of tumor growth, local invasion, intravasation, extravasation and invasion of anatomically distant sites are obligatorily perpetrated through specific interactions of the tumor cells with their microenvironment. Lumican, a class II small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRP) has been designated key roles both in extracellular matrix (ECM) organisation and as an important modulator of biological functions. This review will critically discuss lumicans' roles in tumor development and progression. We will especially focus on correlating lumicans' expression and distribution in tumor tissues with: (1) the organization of the tumor matrices; (2) tumor cell signaling and functions; (3) tumor cell-matrix interface; (4) tumor angiogenesis; and (5) lumicans potential roles in tumor-associated inflammatory response. Present knowledge of lumicans' biology provides a fundamental platform upon which to build and deepen our understanding of lumican function in tumorigenesis in order to be able to design credible anti-tumor approaches.Matrix biology: journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology 09/2013; 35. DOI:10.1016/j.matbio.2013.09.003 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent findings indicate that advanced stage cancers shun the tumor suppressive actions of TGFβ and inexplicably utilize the cytokine as a tumor promoter. We investigated the effect of TGFβ1 on the survival and proliferation of invasive prostate (PC3) and bladder (T24) cancer cells. Our study indicated that TGFβ1 decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in invasive human PC3 and T24 cells via activation of p38 MAPK-JNK-Caspase9/8/3 pathway. Surprisingly, no change in the phosphorylation of pro-survival Akt kinase was observed. We postulate that TGFβ1 pathway may be utilized for specifically targeting urological cancers without inflicting side effects on normal tissues.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2012; 427(1):165-70. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.09.035 · 2.28 Impact Factor