A 'plane' explanation of anterior cruciate ligament injury mechanisms: a systematic review.
ABSTRACT Although intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury have been explored extensively, the factors surrounding the inciting event and the biomechanical mechanisms underlying ACL injury remain elusive. This systematic review summarizes all the relevant data and clarifies the strengths and weaknesses of the literature regarding ACL injury mechanisms. The hypothesis is that most ACL injuries do not occur via solely sagittal, frontal or transverse plane mechanisms. Electronic database literature searches of PubMed MEDLINE (1966-2008), CINAHL (1982-2008) and SportDiscus (1985-2008) were used for the systematic review to identify any studies in the literature that examined ACL injury mechanisms. Methodological approaches that describe and evaluate ACL injury mechanisms included athlete interviews, arthroscopic studies, clinical imaging and physical exam tests, video analysis, cadaveric studies, laboratory tests (motion analysis, electromyography) and mathematical modelling studies. One hundred and ninety-eight studies associated with ACL injury mechanisms were identified and provided evidence regarding plane of injury, with evidence supporting sagittal, frontal and/or transverse plane mechanisms of injury. Collectively, the studies indicate that it is highly probable that ACL injuries are more likely to occur during multi-planar rather than single-planar mechanisms of injury.
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ABSTRACT: Less optimal sagittal plane movement patterns are believed to increase knee injury risk in female athletes. To facilitate clinical screening with a user-friendly method, the purpose of the present study was to examine the temporal relationships between two-dimensional measured sagittal plane kinematics and three-dimensional joint moments during the double-leg drop vertical jump (DVJ) and single-leg DVJ (SLDVJ).The Knee 12/2014; 22(2). DOI:10.1016/j.knee.2014.12.006 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Excessive knee abduction loading is a contributing factor to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a double-leg landing training program with real-time visual feedback improves frontal-plane mechanics during double- and single-leg landings. Knee abduction angles and moments and vertical ground reaction forces (GRF) of 21 recreationally active women were quantified for double- and single-leg landings before and after the training program. This program consisted of two sessions of double-leg jump landings with real-time visual feedback on knee abduction moments for the experimental group and without real-time feedback for the control group. No significant differences were found between training groups. In comparison with pre-training data, peak knee abduction moments decreased 12% post-training for both double- and single-leg landings; whereas peak vertical GRF decreased 8% post-training for double-leg landings only, irrespective of training group. Real-time feedback on knee abduction moments, therefore, did not significantly improve frontal-plane knee mechanics during landings. The effect of the training program on knee abduction moments, however, transferred from the double-leg landings (simple task) to single-leg landings (more complex task). Consequently, ACL injury prevention efforts may not need to focus on complex tasks during which injury occurs.Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 01/2013; DOI:10.1111/sms.12051 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a common injury encountered by sport medicine clinicians. Surgical reconstruction is the recommended treatment of choice for those athletes wishing to return to full-contact sports participation and for sports requiring multi-directional movement patterns. The aim of ACL reconstruction is to restore knee joint mechanical stability such that the athlete can return to sporting participation. However, knowledge regarding the extent to which lower limb kinematic profiles are restored following ACL reconstruction is limited. In the present study the hip and knee joint kinematic profiles of 13 ACL reconstructed (ACL-R) and 16 non-injured control subjects were investigated during the performance of a diagonal jump landing task. The ACL-R group exhibited significantly less peak knee joint flexion (P=0.01). Significant between group differences were noted for time averaged hip joint sagittal plane (P<0.05) and transverse plane (P<0.05) kinematic profiles, as well as knee joint frontal plane (P<0.05) and sagittal plane (P<0.05) kinematic profiles. These results suggest that aberrant hip and knee joint kinematic profiles are present following ACL reconstruction, which could influence future injury risk.Journal of electromyography and kinesiology: official journal of the International Society of Electrophysiological Kinesiology 04/2012; 22(4):598-606. DOI:10.1016/j.jelekin.2012.02.009 · 1.73 Impact Factor