Article

Frequency of stress hyperglycaemia and its' influence on the outcome of patients with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage.

Department of Medicine, Liaquat University of Medical &Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Hyderabad.
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association (Impact Factor: 0.41). 08/2010; 60(8):660-3.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To observe the frequency of admission hyperglycaemia and its influence on the outcome of patients with intracerebral haemorrhage.
This case series study included 450 consecutive patients received in medical wards at Liaquat University Hospital Jamshoro/Hyderabad with a diagnosis of Spontaneous Intracerebral Haemorrhage within 24 hours of their first stroke onset, between September 2006 to December 2008. The patients with haemorrhage secondary to brain tumours, trauma, haemorrhagic transformation of cerebral infarct, with previous history of haemorrhagic stroke, and patients with Glycosylated Haemoglobin greater than 8.5% were excluded from the study. Hyperglycaemia was defined as an admission or in-hospital fasting blood glucose level of 126 mg/dl (7 mmol/liter) or more or a random blood glucose level of 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/liter) or more on 2 or more determinations. The patients were divided into 2 broad groups, good outcome groups (i.e. patients who survived), and poor outcome group (patient died). Categorical variables such as age, sex, volume of haematoma, GCS score, presence of admission hyperglycaemia, Mean arterial pressure (MAP), and site of haematoma were expressed as percentage and frequency. Chi-square test was applied for comparing categorical variables such as hyperglycaemia, GCS score, and age with the outcome of the patients. Multivariate logistical regression analysis was done. A p-value 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. All calculations were done using SPSS version 16 (Chicago, IL, USA).
Of the 450 consecutive patients, 399 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Males were 261(65.4%) and females 136 (36, 4%).Patients of over 65 years age numbered 222 (55.6%) and 177 (44.4%) were less than 65 years. Stress hyperglycaemia was present in 109 (27.3%) cases and 290 (72.7%) patients were normoglycaemic. Of the 109 patients who died during hospitalization, 59 (54.12%) had presented with admission hyperglycaemia (0.001).
Stress hyperglycaemia is a common finding in patients presenting with intracerebral haemorrhage. It is a marker of poor outcomes and higher mortality, more so in patients with no known history of diabetes.

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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence of stress hyperglycemia and to investigate how thyroid and stress hormones alter during stress hyperglycemia in children admitted to pediatric emergency wards. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in children, less than 19 years old, who were admitted to pediatric emergency wards of Nemazee and Dastgheib Hospitals, Shiraz, Southern Iran. Those patients taking steroids, beta-agonists or intravenously administered glucose before venipuncture, and patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or thyroid diseases were excluded. Children with blood glucose ≥150 mg/dL during admission were regarded as cases. The controls were age- and- sex- matched, euglycemic children. Stress hormones including cortisol, insulin, growth hormone, and prolactin were measured, and thyroid function was tested with a radioimmunoassay (RIA) method in all cases and controls. The resuts showed that among 1,054 screened children, 39 cases (3.7 %) had stress hyperglycemia and 89 controls were included in the study. The occurrence of hyperglycemia was independent of sex, but it occurred mostly in children under 6 years old. Hyperglycemia occurred more frequently in patients with a positive family history of DM (odds ratio = 3.2, 95 % CI = 1.3-7.9, and P = 0.009). There were no significant differences between cases and controls regarding any hormones except higher cortisol, and lower total T3 and T4 in cases compared with controls. Neither of cases developed diabetes in the 24-month follow-up period. These findings led us to the conclusion that stress hyperglycemia is occasionally seen in critically ill patients. Among the stress hormones measured, only cortisol increased during hyperglycemia. It seems that hyperglycemia is not an important risk factor for future diabetes.
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