Intrachromosomal mitotic nonallelic homologous recombination is the major molecular mechanism underlying type-2 NF1 deletions.

Institute of Human Genetics, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
Human Mutation (Impact Factor: 5.05). 10/2010; 31(10):1163-73. DOI: 10.1002/humu.21340
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) is responsible for the recurrent rearrangements that give rise to genomic disorders. Although meiotic NAHR has been investigated in multiple contexts, much less is known about mitotic NAHR despite its importance for tumorigenesis. Because type-2 NF1 microdeletions frequently result from mitotic NAHR, they represent a good model in which to investigate the features of mitotic NAHR. We have used microsatellite analysis and SNP arrays to distinguish between the various alternative recombinational possibilities, thereby ascertaining that 17 of 18 type-2 NF1 deletions, with breakpoints in the SUZ12 gene and its highly homologous pseudogene, originated via intrachromosomal recombination. This high proportion of intrachromosomal NAHR causing somatic type-2 NF1 deletions contrasts with the interchromosomal origin of germline type-1 NF1 microdeletions, whose breakpoints are located within the NF1-REPs (low-copy repeats located adjacent to the SUZ12 sequences). Further, meiotic NAHR causing type-1 NF1 deletions occurs within recombination hotspots characterized by high GC-content and DNA duplex stability, whereas the type-2 breakpoints associated with the mitotic NAHR events investigated here do not cluster within hotspots and are located within regions of significantly lower GC-content and DNA stability. Our findings therefore point to fundamental mechanistic differences between the determinants of mitotic and meiotic NAHR.

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    ABSTRACT: Nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) is one of the major mechanisms underlying copy number variation in the human genome. Although several disease‐associated meiotic NAHR breakpoints have been analyzed in great detail, hotspots for mitotic NAHR are not well characterized. Type‐2 NF1 microdeletions, which are predominantly of postzygotic origin, constitute a highly informative model with which to investigate the features of mitotic NAHR. Here, a custom‐designed MLPA‐ and PCR‐based approach was used to identify 23 novel NAHR‐mediated type‐2 NF1 deletions. Breakpoint analysis of these 23 type‐2 deletions, together with 17 NAHR‐mediated type‐2 deletions identified previously, revealed that the breakpoints are nonuniformly distributed within the paralogous SUZ12 and SUZ12P sequences. Further, the analysis of this large group of type‐2 deletions revealed breakpoint recurrence within short segments (ranging in size from 57 to 253‐bp) as well as the existence of a novel NAHR hotspot of 1.9‐kb (termed PRS4). This hotspot harbored 20% (8/40) of the type‐2 deletion breakpoints and contains the 253‐bp recurrent breakpoint region BR6 in which four independent type‐2 deletion breakpoints were identified. Our findings indicate that a combination of an open chromatin conformation and short non‐B DNA‐forming repeats may predispose to recurrent mitotic NAHR events between SUZ12 and its pseudogene. Hum Mutat 33:1599–1609, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Mutation 01/2012; 33(11). · 5.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 5% of all patients with neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1) exhibit large deletions of the NF1 gene region. To date, only 9 unrelated cases of large NF1 duplications have been reported, with none of the affected patients exhibiting multiple café au lait spots (CALS), Lisch nodules, freckling or neurofibromas, the hallmark signs of NF1. Here, we have characterized two novel NF1 duplications, one sporadic and one familial. Both index patients with NF1 duplications exhibited learning disabilities and atypical CALS. Additionally, patient R609021 had Lisch nodules whereas patient R653070 exhibited two inguinal freckles. The mother and sister of patient R609021 also harboured the NF1 duplication and exhibited cognitive dysfunction but no CALS. The breakpoints of the 9 NF1 duplications reported previously have not been identified and hence their underlying generative mechanisms have remained unclear. In this study, we performed high resolution breakpoint analysis which indicated that the two duplications studied were mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) and that the duplication breakpoints were located within the NAHR hotspot PRS2, which also harbours the type-1 NF1 deletion breakpoints. Hence, our study indicates for the first time that NF1 duplications are reciprocal to type-1 NF1 deletions and originate from the same NAHR events.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Human Mutation 09/2014; 35(12). · 5.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nonallelic homologous gene conversion (NAHGC) resulting from interparalog recombination without crossover represents an important influence on the evolution of duplicated sequences in the human genome. In 17q11.2, different paralogous sequences mediate large NF1 deletions by nonallelic homologous recombination with crossover (NAHR). Among these paralogs are SUZ12 and its pseudogene SUZ12P which harbour the breakpoints of type-2 (1.2-Mb) NF1 deletions. Such deletions are caused predominantly by mitotic NAHR since somatic mosaicism with normal cells is evident in most patients. Investigating whether SUZ12 and SUZ12P have also been involved in NAHGC, we observed gene conversion tracts between these paralogs in both Africans (AFR) and Europeans (EUR). Since germline type-2 NF1 deletions resulting from meiotic NAHR are very rare, the vast majority of the gene conversion tracts in SUZ12 and SUZ12P are likely to have resulted from mitotic recombination during premeiotic cell divisions of germ cells. A higher number of gene conversion tracts were noted within SUZ12 and SUZ12P in AFR as compared to EUR. Further, the distinctive signature of NAHGC (a high number of SNPs per paralog and a high number of shared SNPs between paralogs), a characteristic of many actively recombining paralogs, was observed in both SUZ12 and SUZ12P but only in AFR and not in EUR. A novel polymorphic 2.3-kb deletion in SUZ12P was identified which exhibited a high allele frequency in EUR. We postulate that this interparalog structural difference, together with low allelic recombination rates, could have caused a reduction in NAHGC between SUZ12 and SUZ12P during human evolution.
    Human Genetics 01/2014; · 4.52 Impact Factor

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