Prevention: Reducing the risk of CVD in patients with periodontitis.
ABSTRACT The association between periodontitis and other chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus, could be related to systemic inflammation initiated by a local inflammatory challenge. Oliveira et al. have added lack of oral hygiene, and its link with systemic inflammation, to the spectrum of risk factors for CVD.
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ABSTRACT: Changes in the periodontal status are associated with shifts in the composition of the bacterial community in the periodontal pocket. The relative abundance of several newly recognized microbial species including Filifactor alocis, as-yet-culturable and other fastidious organisms have raised questions on their impact on disease development. We have previously reported that the virulence attributes of F. alocis is enhanced in coculture with Porphyromonas gingivalis. We have evaluated the proteome of host cells and F. alocis during a polymicrobial infection. Coinfection of epithelial cells with F. alocis and P. gingivalis strains showed approximately 20 - 30% more proteins in contrast to a monoinfection. Compared to F. alocis ATCC 35896, the D62-D strain expressed more proteins during co-culture with P. gingivalis W83 in contrast to P. gingivalis 33277. Proteins designated microbial surface component recognizing adhesion matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs) and cell wall anchor proteins were highly upregulated during the polymicrobial infection. Ultra structural analysis of the epithelial cells showed formation of membrane microdomains only during coinfection. Proteome profile of epithelial cells showed proteins related to cytoskeletal organization and gene expression and epigenetic modification to be in high abundance. Modulation of proteins involved in apoptotic and cell signaling pathways were noted during coinfection. The enhanced virulence potential of F. alocis may be related to the differential expression of several putative virulence factors and their effect on specific host cell pathways.Infection and Immunity 05/2014; 82(8). DOI:10.1128/IAI.01727-14 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Periodontitis is a dysbiotic inflammatory disease with an adverse impact on systemic health. Recent studies have provided insights into the emergence and persistence of dysbiotic oral microbial communities that can mediate inflammatory pathology at local as well as distant sites. This Review discusses the mechanisms of microbial immune subversion that tip the balance from homeostasis to disease in oral or extra-oral sites.Nature reviews. Immunology 12/2014; 15(1):30-44. DOI:10.1038/nri3785 · 33.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Infection-induced periodontal disease has been primarily focused on a small group of periodontal pathogens. A paradigm shift, based on data emerging from the oral microbiome project, now suggests the involvement of as-yet-unculturable and fastidious organisms. Collectively, these studies have demonstrated that there are changes in the periodontal status associated with shifts in the composition of the bacterial community in the periodontal pocket. In addition, it is likely that the emerging new pathogens may play a more significant role in the disease. One of the organisms previously unrecognized is Filifactor alocis. While this Gram-positive anaerobic rod has been identified in peri-implantitis, in endodontic infections, and in patients with localized aggressive periodontitis, its presence is now observed at significantly higher levels in patients with adult periodontitis or refractory periodontitis. Its colonization properties and its potential virulence attributes support the proposal that F. alocis should be included as a diagnostic indicator of periodontal disease. Moreover, these emerging characteristics would be consistent with the polymicrobial synergy and dysbiosis (PSD) periodontal pathogenesis model. Here, unique characteristics of F. alocis are discussed. F. alocis has specific factors that can modulate multiple changes in the microbial community and host cell proteome. It is likely that such variations at the molecular level are responsible for the functional changes required to mediate the pathogenic process.Journal of Dental Research 06/2014; 93(8). DOI:10.1177/0022034514538283 · 4.14 Impact Factor