The calreticulin-binding sequence of thrombospondin 1 regulates collagen expression and organization during tissue remodeling.
ABSTRACT Amino acids 17-35 of the thrombospondin1 (TSP1) N-terminal domain (NTD) bind cell surface calreticulin to signal focal adhesion disassembly, cell migration, and anoikis resistance in vitro. However, the in vivo relevance of this signaling pathway has not been previously determined. We engineered local in vivo expression of the TSP1 calreticulin-binding sequence to determine the role of TSP1 in tissue remodeling. Surgical sponges impregnated with a plasmid encoding the secreted calreticulin-binding sequence [NTD (1-35)-EGFP] or a control sequence [mod NTD (1-35)-EGFP] tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein were implanted subcutaneously in mice. Sponges expressing NTD (1-35)-EFGP formed a highly organized capsule despite no differences in cellular composition, suggesting stimulation of collagen deposition by the calreticulin-binding sequence of TSP1. TSP1, recombinant NTD, or a peptide of the TSP1 calreticulin-binding sequence (hep I) increased both collagen expression and matrix deposition by fibroblasts in vitro. TSP1 stimulation of collagen was inhibited by a peptide that blocks TSP1 binding to calreticulin, demonstrating the requirement for cell surface calreticulin. Collagen stimulation was independent of TGF-β activity and Smad phosphorylation but was blocked by an Akt inhibitor, suggesting that signaling through the Akt pathway is important for regulation of collagen through TSP1 binding to calreticulin. These studies identify a novel function for the NTD of TSP1 as a mediator of collagen expression and deposition during tissue remodeling.
Article: SPARC mediates focal adhesion disassembly in endothelial cells through a follistatin-like region and the Ca(2+)-binding EF-hand.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: SPARC is a one of a group of extracellular matrix proteins that regulate cell adhesion through a loss of focal adhesion plaques from spread cells. We previously reported that SPARC reduced the number of bovine aortic endothelial (BAE) cells positive for focal adhesions [Murphy-Ullrich et al. (1991): J Cell Biol 115:1127-1136]. We have now characterized the effect of SPARC on the cytoskeleton of BAE cells. Addition of SPARC to spread BAE cells caused a dose-dependent loss of focal adhesion-positive cells, that was maximal at approximately 1 microgram/ml (0.03 microM). Consistent with the loss of adhesion plaques as detected by interference reflection microscopy, vinculin appeared diffuse and F-actin was redistributed to the periphery of cells incubated with SPARC. However, the distribution of the integrin alpha v beta 3 remained clustered in a plaque-like distribution. These data, and the observation that SPARC binds to BAE cells but not to the extracellular matrix, indicate that SPARC acts via interactions with cell surface molecules and not by steric/physical disruption of integrin-extracellular matrix ligands. To determine the region(s) of SPARC that mediate a loss of focal adhesions, we tested peptides from the four distinct regions of SPARC. The cationic, cysteine-rich peptide 2.1 (amino acids 54-73) and the Ca(2+)-binding EF-hand-containing peptide 4.2 (amino acids 254-273) were active in focal adhesion disassembly. Furthermore, antibodies specific for these regions neutralized the focal adhesion-labilizing activity of SPARC. These results are consistent with previous data showing that peptide 2.1 and 4.2 interact with BAE cell surface proteins and indicate that the loss of focal adhesions from endothelial cells exposed to SPARC is a receptor-mediated event.Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 03/1995; 57(2):341-50. · 2.87 Impact Factor
Article: Type I collagen is a molecular target for inhibition of angiogenesis by endogenous thrombospondin-1.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional explant cultures of muscle tissue were used to characterize secreted proteins regulated by endogenous levels of the angiogenesis modulator thrombospondin (TSP)-1. Explants from TSP1 null mice exhibit enhanced neovascularization associated with increased endothelial outgrowth but decreased outgrowth of perivascular smooth muscle cells . The absence of endogenous TSP1 did not diminish activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta and moderately decreased matrix metalloproteinase levels. However, significant changes in other secreted proteins were observed. Endogenous TSP1 decreased mRNA levels for collagens Ialpha1, Ialpha2, and IIIalpha1 and laminin alpha4 and increased collagen IValpha1 mRNA expression. Endogenous TSP1 also decreased the level of type I collagen protein produced by the vascular outgrowths. Collagens Ialpha1, Ialpha2, and IIIalpha1 are known tumor endothelial markers, suggesting that TSP1 coordinately regulates a set of extracellular matrix genes that reverse the angiogenic switch. Suppression of collagen Ialpha1 or Ialpha2 mRNAs using antisense morpholinos inhibited outgrowth in TSP1 null explants and proliferation of TSP1 null endothelial cells, indicating that type I collagen synthesis is limiting for this neovascularization response.Oncogene 02/2006; 25(4):536-45. · 6.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is an obstructive upper airway syndrome that frequently mimics asthma and for which there is no empirical treatment of choice. To describe two military service members experiencing VCD who were treated with psychophysiologic self-regulation training. Both cases were active-duty military members with VCD confirmed by laryngoscopy They each received biofeedback self-regulation training to decrease tension in the extrinsic laryngeal musculature. Both patients responded to the treatment, denied the presence of dsypnea, and had resumed military physical training. Psychophysiologic self-regulation strategies both with and without concurrent speech therapy positively impacted VCD symptoms.Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 07/2003; 90(6):669-71. · 2.83 Impact Factor