Olfactomedin 4 is a novel target gene of retinoic acids and 5-aza-2 '-deoxycytidine involved in human myeloid leukemia cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis
ABSTRACT Clinical application of retinoic acids (RAs) and demethylation agents has proven to be effective in treating certain myeloid leukemia patients. However, the target genes that mediate these antileukemia activities are still poorly understood. In this study, we identified olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4), a myeloid-lineage-specific gene from the olfactomedin family, as a novel target gene for RAs and the demethylation agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. We demonstrated that the retinoic acid receptor alpha/retinoic X receptor alpha heterodimer binds to a retinoic acid response-element (DR5) site in the OLFM4 promoter and mediates all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced transactivation of the OLFM4 gene. OLFM4 overexpression in HL-60 cells led to growth inhibition, differentiation, and apoptosis, and potentiated ATRA induction of these effects. Conversely, down-regulation of endogenous OLFM4 in acute myeloid leukemia-193 cells compromised ATRA-induced growth inhibition, differentiation, and apoptosis. Overexpression of OLFM4 in HL-60 cells inhibited constitutive and ATRA-induced phosphorylation of the eukaryote initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), whereas down-regulation of OLFM4 protein in acute myeloid leukemia-193 cells increased 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, suggesting that OLFM4 is a potent upstream inhibitor of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation/deactivation. Thus, our study demonstrates that OLFM4 plays an important role in myeloid leukemia cellular functions and induction of OLFM4-mediated effects may contribute to the therapeutic value of ATRA.
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ABSTRACT: The mammalian intestinal epithelium has a unique organization in which crypts harboring stem cells produce progenitors and finally clonal populations of differentiated cells. Remarkably, the epithelium is replaced every 3-5 d throughout adult life. Disrupted maintenance of the intricate balance of proliferation and differentiation leads to loss of epithelial integrity or barrier function or to cancer. There is a tight correlation between the epigenetic status of genes and expression changes during differentiation; however, the mechanism of how changes in DNA methylation direct gene expression and the progression from stem cells to their differentiated descendants is unclear. Using conditional gene ablation of the maintenance methyltransferase Dnmt1, we demonstrate that reducing DNA methylation causes intestinal crypt expansion in vivo. Determination of the base-resolution DNA methylome in intestinal stem cells and their differentiated descendants shows that DNA methylation is dynamic at enhancers, which are often associated with genes important for both stem cell maintenance and differentiation. We establish that the loss of DNA methylation at intestinal stem cell gene enhancers causes inappropriate gene expression and delayed differentiation.Genes & development 03/2014; 28(6):652-64. DOI:10.1101/gad.230318.113 · 12.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Olfactomedin proteins are characterized by a conserved domain of \texorpdfstring~\textasciitilde250 amino acids corresponding to the olfactomedin archetype first discovered in olfactory neuroepithelium. They arose early in evolution and occur throughout the animal kingdom. In mice and humans olfactomedin proteins comprise a diverse array of glycoproteins, many of which are critical for early development and functional organization of the nervous system as well as hematopoiesis. Olfactomedin domains appear to facilitate protein-protein interactions, intercellular interactions, and cell adhesion. Several members of the family have been implicated in various common diseases, notably myocilin in glaucoma and OLFM4 in cancer. This review highlights this important, hitherto understudied family of proteins.Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology 01/2014; 2:6. DOI:10.3389/fcell.2014.00006
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ABSTRACT: Recent advances in stem cell biology have shed light on how normal stem and progenitor cells can evolve to acquire malignant characteristics during tumorigenesis. The cancer counterparts of normal stem and progenitor cells might be occurred through alterations of stem cell fates including an increase in self-renewal capability and a decrease in differentiation and/or apoptosis. This oncogenic evolution of cancer stem and progenitor cells, which often associates with aggressive phenotypes of the tumorigenic cells, is controlled in part by dysregulated epigenetic mechanisms including aberrant DNA methylation leading to abnormal epigenetic memory. Epigenetic therapy by targeting DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) 1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B via 5-Azacytidine (Aza) and 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Aza-dC) has proved to be successful toward treatment of hematologic neoplasms especially for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. In this review, I summarize the current knowledge of mechanisms underlying the inhibition of DNA methylation by Aza and Aza-dC, and of their apoptotic- and differentiation-inducing effects on cancer stem and progenitor cells in leukemia, medulloblastoma, glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer and testicular germ cell tumors. Since cancer stem and progenitor cells are implicated in cancer aggressiveness such as tumor formation, progression, metastasis and recurrence, I propose that effective therapeutic strategies might be achieved through eradication of cancer stem and progenitor cells by targeting the DNA methylation machineries to interfere their "malignant memory".01/2015; 7(1):137-48. DOI:10.4252/wjsc.v7.i1.137