Article

Inhibition of Wnt signaling by Wise (Sostdc1) and negative feedback from Shh controls tooth number and patterning

Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA.
Development (Impact Factor: 6.27). 10/2010; 137(19):3221-31. DOI: 10.1242/dev.054668
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mice carrying mutations in Wise (Sostdc1) display defects in many aspects of tooth development, including tooth number, size and cusp pattern. To understand the basis of these defects, we have investigated the pathways modulated by Wise in tooth development. We present evidence that, in tooth development, Wise suppresses survival of the diastema or incisor vestigial buds by serving as an inhibitor of Lrp5- and Lrp6-dependent Wnt signaling. Reducing the dosage of the Wnt co-receptor genes Lrp5 and Lrp6 rescues the Wise-null tooth phenotypes. Inactivation of Wise leads to elevated Wnt signaling and, as a consequence, vestigial tooth buds in the normally toothless diastema region display increased proliferation and continuous development to form supernumerary teeth. Conversely, gain-of-function studies show that ectopic Wise reduces Wnt signaling and tooth number. Our analyses demonstrate that the Fgf and Shh pathways are major downstream targets of Wise-regulated Wnt signaling. Furthermore, our experiments revealed that Shh acts as a negative-feedback regulator of Wnt signaling and thus determines the fate of the vestigial buds and later tooth patterning. These data provide insight into the mechanisms that control Wnt signaling in tooth development and into how crosstalk among signaling pathways controls tooth number and morphogenesis.

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    • "Journal of Oral Biosciences http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.job.2015.04.001 1349-0079/& 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Japanese Association for Oral Biology. mouse tooth development [14] [15] "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Pharyngeal arches develop in the head and neck regions, and give rise to teeth, oral jaws, the hyoid bone, operculum, gills, and pharyngeal jaws in teleosts. In this study, the expression patterns of genes in the sonic hedgehog (shh), wnt, ectodysplasin A (eda), and bone morphogenetic protein (bmp) pathways were investigated in the pharyngeal arches of Haplochromis piceatus, one of the Lake Victoria cichlids. Furthermore, the role of the shh pathway in pharyngeal arch development in H. piceatus larvae was investigated. Methods: The expression patterns of lymphocyte enhancer binding factor 1 (lef1), ectodysplasin A receptor (edar), shh, patched 1 (ptch1), bmp4, sp5 transcription factor (sp5), sclerostin domain containing 1a (sostdc1a), and dickkopf 1 (dkk1) were investigated in H. piceatus larvae by in situ hybridization. The role of the shh pathway was investigated through morphological phenotypic characterization after its inhibition. Results: We found that lef1, edar, shh, ptch1, bmp4, dkk1, sostdc1a, and sp5 were expressed not only in the teeth, but also in the operculum and gill filaments of H piceatus larvae. After blocking the shh pathway using cyclopamine, we observed ectopic shh expression and the disappearance of ptch1 expression. After six weeks of cyclopamine treatment, an absence of teeth in the oral upper jaws and a poor outgrowth of premaxilla, operculum, and gill filaments in juvenile H. piceatus were observed. Conclusions: These results suggest that the shh pathway is important for the development of pharyngeal arch derivatives such as teeth, premaxilla, operculum, and gill filaments in H. piceatus.
    Journal of Oral Biosciences 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.job.2015.04.001
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    • "Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. mouse tooth development [14] [15]. The Wnt pathway positively activates the Shh pathway, then, the Shh pathway induces the expression of Sostdc1, which inhibits the Wnt pathway [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Pharyngeal arches develop in the head and neck regions, and give rise to teeth, oral jaws, the hyoid bone, operculum, gills, and pharyngeal jaws in teleosts. In this study, the expression patterns of genes in the sonic hedgehog (shh), wnt, ectodysplasin A (eda), and bone morphogenetic protein (bmp) pathways were investigated in the pharyngeal arches of Haplochromis piceatus, one of the Lake Victoria cichlids. Furthermore, the role of the shh pathway in pharyngeal arch development in H. piceatus larvae was investigated. Methods The expression patterns of lymphocyte enhancer binding factor 1 (lef1), ectodysplasin A receptor (edar), shh, patched 1 (ptch1), bmp4, sp5 transcription factor (sp5), sclerostin domain containing 1a (sostdc1a), and dickkopf 1 (dkk1) were investigated in H. piceatus larvae by in situ hybridization. The role of the shh pathway was investigated through morphological phenotypic characterization after its inhibition. Results We found that lef1, edar, shh, ptch1, bmp4, dkk1, sostdc1a, and sp5 were expressed not only in the teeth, but also in the operculum and gill filaments of H piceatus larvae. After blocking the shh pathway using cyclopamine, we observed ectopic shh expression and the disappearance of ptch1 expression. After six weeks of cyclopamine treatment, an absence of teeth in the oral upper jaws and a poor outgrowth of premaxilla, operculum, and gill filaments in juvenile H. piceatus were observed. Conclusions These results suggest that the shh pathway is important for the development of pharyngeal arch derivatives such as teeth, premaxilla, operculum, and gill filaments in H. piceatus.
    Journal of Oral Biosciences 07/2015; 57:148-156.
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    • "A feedback loop between Wnt and Shh signaling in the IVD is consistent with a number of recent studies showing interaction between the two pathways during development of the teeth [18], [19], alar plate [20], taste papillae [21], thalamus [22], synovial joints [23] and neural progenitors [24]. Some of these studies have specifically shown that while Wnt upregulates Shh, Shh in turn inhibits Wnt signaling [18], [19], [21]. In addition, Wnt and Shh signaling pathways have been shown to work in parallel to control cell cycle progression, by up-regulating cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) that are critical for cell-cycle progression [24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Intervertebral discs (IVDs) are strong fibrocartilaginous joints that connect adjacent vertebrae of the spine. As discs age they become prone to failure, with neurological consequences that are often severe. Surgical repair of discs treats the result of the disease, which affects as many as one in seven people, rather than its cause. An ideal solution would be to repair degenerating discs using the mechanisms of their normal differentiation. However, these mechanisms are poorly understood. Using the mouse as a model, we previously showed that Shh signaling produced by nucleus pulposus cells activates the expression of differentiation markers, and cell proliferation, in the postnatal IVD. In the present study, we show that canonical Wnt signaling is required for the expression of Shh signaling targets in the IVD. We also show that Shh and canonical Wnt signaling pathways are down-regulated in adult IVDs. Furthermore, this down-regulation is reversible, since re-activation of the Wnt or Shh pathways in older discs can re-activate molecular markers of the IVD that are lost with age. These data suggest that biological treatments targeting Wnt and Shh signaling pathways may be feasible as a therapeutic for degenerative disc disease.
    PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e98444. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0098444 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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