Article

Inhibition of Wnt signaling by Wise (Sostdc1) and negative feedback from Shh controls tooth number and patterning

Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA.
Development (Impact Factor: 6.27). 10/2010; 137(19):3221-31. DOI: 10.1242/dev.054668
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mice carrying mutations in Wise (Sostdc1) display defects in many aspects of tooth development, including tooth number, size and cusp pattern. To understand the basis of these defects, we have investigated the pathways modulated by Wise in tooth development. We present evidence that, in tooth development, Wise suppresses survival of the diastema or incisor vestigial buds by serving as an inhibitor of Lrp5- and Lrp6-dependent Wnt signaling. Reducing the dosage of the Wnt co-receptor genes Lrp5 and Lrp6 rescues the Wise-null tooth phenotypes. Inactivation of Wise leads to elevated Wnt signaling and, as a consequence, vestigial tooth buds in the normally toothless diastema region display increased proliferation and continuous development to form supernumerary teeth. Conversely, gain-of-function studies show that ectopic Wise reduces Wnt signaling and tooth number. Our analyses demonstrate that the Fgf and Shh pathways are major downstream targets of Wise-regulated Wnt signaling. Furthermore, our experiments revealed that Shh acts as a negative-feedback regulator of Wnt signaling and thus determines the fate of the vestigial buds and later tooth patterning. These data provide insight into the mechanisms that control Wnt signaling in tooth development and into how crosstalk among signaling pathways controls tooth number and morphogenesis.

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    • "Journal of Oral Biosciences http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.job.2015.04.001 1349-0079/& 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Japanese Association for Oral Biology. mouse tooth development [14] [15] "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Pharyngeal arches develop in the head and neck regions, and give rise to teeth, oral jaws, the hyoid bone, operculum, gills, and pharyngeal jaws in teleosts. In this study, the expression patterns of genes in the sonic hedgehog (shh), wnt, ectodysplasin A (eda), and bone morphogenetic protein (bmp) pathways were investigated in the pharyngeal arches of Haplochromis piceatus, one of the Lake Victoria cichlids. Furthermore, the role of the shh pathway in pharyngeal arch development in H. piceatus larvae was investigated. Methods: The expression patterns of lymphocyte enhancer binding factor 1 (lef1), ectodysplasin A receptor (edar), shh, patched 1 (ptch1), bmp4, sp5 transcription factor (sp5), sclerostin domain containing 1a (sostdc1a), and dickkopf 1 (dkk1) were investigated in H. piceatus larvae by in situ hybridization. The role of the shh pathway was investigated through morphological phenotypic characterization after its inhibition. Results: We found that lef1, edar, shh, ptch1, bmp4, dkk1, sostdc1a, and sp5 were expressed not only in the teeth, but also in the operculum and gill filaments of H piceatus larvae. After blocking the shh pathway using cyclopamine, we observed ectopic shh expression and the disappearance of ptch1 expression. After six weeks of cyclopamine treatment, an absence of teeth in the oral upper jaws and a poor outgrowth of premaxilla, operculum, and gill filaments in juvenile H. piceatus were observed. Conclusions: These results suggest that the shh pathway is important for the development of pharyngeal arch derivatives such as teeth, premaxilla, operculum, and gill filaments in H. piceatus.
    Journal of Oral Biosciences 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.job.2015.04.001
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    • "Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. mouse tooth development [14] [15]. The Wnt pathway positively activates the Shh pathway, then, the Shh pathway induces the expression of Sostdc1, which inhibits the Wnt pathway [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Pharyngeal arches develop in the head and neck regions, and give rise to teeth, oral jaws, the hyoid bone, operculum, gills, and pharyngeal jaws in teleosts. In this study, the expression patterns of genes in the sonic hedgehog (shh), wnt, ectodysplasin A (eda), and bone morphogenetic protein (bmp) pathways were investigated in the pharyngeal arches of Haplochromis piceatus, one of the Lake Victoria cichlids. Furthermore, the role of the shh pathway in pharyngeal arch development in H. piceatus larvae was investigated. Methods The expression patterns of lymphocyte enhancer binding factor 1 (lef1), ectodysplasin A receptor (edar), shh, patched 1 (ptch1), bmp4, sp5 transcription factor (sp5), sclerostin domain containing 1a (sostdc1a), and dickkopf 1 (dkk1) were investigated in H. piceatus larvae by in situ hybridization. The role of the shh pathway was investigated through morphological phenotypic characterization after its inhibition. Results We found that lef1, edar, shh, ptch1, bmp4, dkk1, sostdc1a, and sp5 were expressed not only in the teeth, but also in the operculum and gill filaments of H piceatus larvae. After blocking the shh pathway using cyclopamine, we observed ectopic shh expression and the disappearance of ptch1 expression. After six weeks of cyclopamine treatment, an absence of teeth in the oral upper jaws and a poor outgrowth of premaxilla, operculum, and gill filaments in juvenile H. piceatus were observed. Conclusions These results suggest that the shh pathway is important for the development of pharyngeal arch derivatives such as teeth, premaxilla, operculum, and gill filaments in H. piceatus.
    Journal of Oral Biosciences 07/2015; 57:148-156.
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    • "sostdc expression is strongest in the intermediate cells between the ODE and IDE of the cap to bell-stage replacement tooth, and less strong at the cusp tip or mesenchymal papilla (3C, yellow arrow). sostdc influences tooth development by integrating BMP, FGF, Hh and Wnt pathways (Ahn et al., 2010; Cho et al., 2011; Kassai et al., 2005; Laurikkala et al., 2003). As cichlid replacement teeth initiate differentiation, fgf3 and fgf10 are expressed in dental mesenchyme, and fgf3 is expressed transiently in the aboral epithelium (Fig. 3D, E). "
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    ABSTRACT: In many non-mammalian vertebrates, adult dentitions result from cyclical rounds of tooth regeneration wherein simple unicuspid teeth are replaced by more complex forms. Therefore and by contrast to mammalian models, the numerical majority of vertebrate teeth develop shape during the process of replacement. Here, we exploit the dental diversity of Lake Malawi cichlid fishes to ask how vertebrates generally replace their dentition and in turn how this process acts to influence resulting tooth morphologies. First, we used immunohistochemistry to chart organogenesis of continually replacing cichlid teeth and discovered an epithelial down-growth that initiates the replacement cycle via a labial proliferation bias. Next, we identified sets of co-expressed genes from common pathways active during de novo, lifelong tooth replacement and tooth morphogenesis. Of note, we found two distinct epithelial cell populations, expressing markers of dental competence and cell potency, which may be responsible for tooth regeneration. Related gene sets were simultaneously active in putative signaling centers associated with the differentiation of replacement teeth with complex shapes. Finally, we manipulated targeted pathways (BMP, FGF, Hh, Notch, Wnt/β-catenin) in vivo with small molecules and demonstrated dose-dependent effects on both tooth replacement and tooth shape. Our data suggest that the processes of tooth regeneration and tooth shape morphogenesis are integrated via a common set of molecular signals. This linkage has subsequently been lost or decoupled in mammalian dentitions where complex tooth shapes develop in first generation dentitions that lack the capacity for lifelong replacement. Our dissection of the molecular mechanics of vertebrate tooth replacement coupled to complex shape pinpoints aspects of odontogenesis that might be re-evolved in the lab to solve problems in regenerative dentistry.
    Developmental Biology 02/2013; 377(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2013.02.007 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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