Salt excretion in Suaeda fruticosa.
ABSTRACT Suaeda fruticosa is a perennial "includer" halophyte devoid of glands or trichomes with a strong ability of accumulating and sequestrating Na(+) and Cl(-). We were interested in determining whether leaf cuticle salt excretion could be involved as a further mechanism in salt response of this species after long-term treatment with high salinity levels. Seedlings had been treated for three months with seawater (SW) diluted with tap water (0, 25, 50 and 75% SW). Leaf scanning electron microscopy revealed a convex adaxial side sculpture and a higher accumulation of saline crystals at the lamina margin, with a large variability on repartition and size between treatments. No salt gland or salt bladder was found. Threedimensional wax decorations were the only structures found on leaf surface. Washing the leaf surface with water indicated that sodium and chloride predominated in excreted salts, and that potassium was poorly represented. Optimal growth of whole plant was recorded at 25% SW, correlating with maximum Na(+) and Cl(-) absolute secretion rate. The leaves of plants treated with SW retained more water than those of plants treated with tap water due to lower solute potential, especially at 25% SW. Analysis of compatible solute, such as proline, total soluble carbohydrates and glycinebetaine disclosed strong relationship between glycinebetaine and osmotic potential (r = 0.92) suggesting that tissue hydration was partly maintained by glycinebetaine accumulation. Thus in S. fruticosa , increased solute accumulation associated with water retention, and steady intracellular ion homeostasis confirms the "includer" strategy of salt tolerance previously demonstrated. However, salt excretion at leaf surface also participated in conferring to this species a capacity in high salinity tolerance.
- SourceAvailable from: Tabassum Hussain[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Suaeda fruticosa Forssk is a leaf succulent obligate halophyte that produces numerous seeds under saline conditions. Seeds are a good source of high quality edible oil and leaves are capable of removing substantial amount of salt from the saline soil besides many other economic usages. Little is known about the biochemical basis of salt tolerance in this species. We studied some biochemical responses of S. fruticosa to different exog-enous treatments under non-saline (0 mM), moderate (300 mM) or high (600 mM) NaCl levels. Eight-week-old seedlings were sprayed twice a week with distilled water, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 , 100 lM), glycine betaine (GB, 10 mM), or ascorbic acid (AsA, 20 mM) for 30 days. At moderate (300 mM) NaCl, leaf Na ? , Ca 2? and osmolality increased, along with unchanged ROS and antioxidant enzyme activities, possibly causing a better plant growth. Plants grew slowly at 600 mM NaCl to avoid leaf Na ? buildup relative to those at 300 mM NaCl. Exogenous application of distilled water and H 2 O 2 improved ROS scavenging mechanisms, although growth was unaffected. ASA and GB alleviated salt-induced growth inhibition at 600 mM NaCl through enhancing the antioxidant defense system and osmotic and ion homeo-stasis, respectively.Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 01/2012; 34:2331-2340. · 1.31 Impact Factor
- Journal of Biological Research-Thessaloniki. 01/2013; 19:150-164.