Cigarette dependence questionnaire: development and psychometric testing with male smokers.
ABSTRACT This paper is a report of a study conducted to develop and test a theoretically derived Cigarette Dependence Questionnaire for adult male smokers.
Fagerstrom questionnaires have been used worldwide to assess cigarette dependence. However, these assessments lack any theoretical perspective. A theory-based approach is needed to ensure valid assessment.
In 2007, an initial pool of 103 Cigarette Dependence Questionnaire items was distributed to 109 adult smokers in Taiwan. Item analysis was conducted to select items for inclusion in the refined scale. The psychometric properties of the Cigarette Dependence Questionnaire were further evaluated 2007-08, when it was administered to 256 respondents and their saliva was collected and analysed for cotinine levels. Criterion validity was established through the Pearson correlation between the scale and saliva cotinine levels. Exploratory factor analysis was used to test construct validity. Reliability was determined with Cronbach's alpha coefficient and a 2-week test-retest coefficient.
The selection of 30 items for seven perspectives was based on item analysis. One factor accounting for 44.9% of the variance emerged from the factor analysis. The factor was named as cigarette dependence. Cigarette Dependence Questionnaire scores were statistically significantly correlated with saliva cotinine levels (r = 0.21, P = 0.01). Cronbach's alpha was 0.95 and test-retest reliability using an intra-class correlation was 0.92.
The Cigarette Dependence Questionnaire showed sound reliability and validity and could be used by nurses to set up smoking cessation interventions based on assessment of cigarette dependence.
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ABSTRACT: Research showed that the widely used Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND) does not cover important aspects of dependence. A new test, the cigarette dependence scale (CDS-12), covers the main elements in DSM-IV and ICD-10 definitions of dependence. We compared the psychometrics of CDS-12, FTND, and CDS-5 and the heaviness of smoking index (HSI), which are short versions of CDS-12 and FTND, respectively. Internet survey in 2002-2003. Participants were invited one month after answering the first survey to answer a second survey on smoking status and withdrawal symptoms. Eight hundred two smokers answered both surveys. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were higher for CDS-12 (0.91) and CDS-5 (0.77) than for FTND (0.68) and HSI (0.63). Among 231 smokers who quit smoking at follow-up, higher baseline CDS-12 scores predicted higher withdrawal ratings at follow-up, for all withdrawal symptoms except appetite. FTND and HSI predicted higher craving in quitters, but did not predict the intensity of other withdrawal symptoms. Neither CDS-5, FTND or HSI predicted smoking cessation, but higher CDS-12 scores marginally predicted smoking cessation at follow-up (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve = 0.55, 95% confidence interval = 0.51-0.59). CDS-12 had better content validity and internal consistency than FTND and was a slightly better predictor of withdrawal symptoms. Unexpectedly, higher (not lower) CDS-12 scores predicted subsequent smoking cessation, perhaps because endorsement of some CDS-12 items implies accepting that one is dependent, which in turn could reflect motivation to quit. CDS-12 may represent an alternative to FTND for measuring cigarette dependence.Drug and Alcohol Dependence 04/2005; 77(3):259-68. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Considerable research, ranging from survey to clinical to genetic, has utilized traditional measures of tobacco dependence, such as the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (4th ed.) (DSM-IV) criteria, that focus on endpoint definitions of tobacco dependence such as heavy smoking, time to first cigarette in the morning, and smoking despite consequences. In an effort to better understand possible theories and mechanisms underlying tobacco dependence, which could be used to improve treatment and research, two multidimensional measures of tobacco dependence have been developed: the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS) and the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM). This research used data from three randomized smoking cessation trials to examine the internal consistency and validity (convergent, concurrent and predictive) of these scales, relative to each other and the traditional measures. Results reveal that NDSS and WISDM subscales are related to important dependence criteria, but in a heterogeneous fashion. The data suggest that there are important underlying mechanisms or motives that are significantly related to different important outcomes, such as withdrawal and cessation. The FTND was most strongly related to abstinence at 1 week and 6 months post-quit, whereas the WISDM Tolerance subscale was most strongly related to abstinence at the end of treatment. The NDSS Priority subscale was consistently predictive of outcome at all three follow-up time points. There is also evidence that WISDM subscales are related to a biomarker of the rate of nicotine metabolism.Nicotine & Tobacco Research 07/2008; 10(6):1009-20. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To compare the concurrent and predictive validities of two subsets of DSM-IV criteria for nicotine dependence (tolerance and withdrawal; withdrawal; difficulty controlling use; and use despite harm) to the concurrent and predictive validity of the full DSM-IV criteria. Analysis of baseline and outcome data from three randomized clinical trials of cigarette smoking treatment. San Francisco, California. Two samples of cigarette smokers (n = 810 and 322), differing with regard to baseline characteristics and treatment received, derived from three randomized clinical trials. DSM-IV nicotine dependence criteria were measured at baseline with a computerized version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV (DIS-IV). Additional baseline measures included the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND), number of cigarettes smoked per day, breath carbon monoxide (CO) level, the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS), the Michigan Nicotine Reinforcement Questionnaire (M-NRQ) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Seven-day point-prevalence abstinence was assessed at week 12. Full DSM-IV criteria displayed greater concurrent validity than either of the two subsets of criteria. However, DSM-IV symptoms accounted for only a nominal amount of the variance in baseline smoking-related characteristics and were unrelated to smoking abstinence at week 12. Cigarettes smoked per day was the only significant predictor of abstinence at week 12. Although the findings do not provide a compelling alternative to the full set of DSM-IV nicotine dependence criteria, its poor psychometric properties and low predictive power limit its clinical and research utility.Addiction 08/2008; 103(7):1215-23. · 4.58 Impact Factor