Self-care and mobility skills in children with cerebral palsy, related to their manual ability and gross motor function classifications.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the acquisition of self-care and mobility skills in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in relation to their manual ability and gross motor function.
Data from the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) self-care and mobility functional skill scales, the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) were collected from 195 children with CP (73 females, 122 males; mean age 8 y 1 mo; SD 3 y 11 mo; range 3-15 y); 51% had spastic bilateral CP, 36% spastic unilateral CP, 8% dyskinetic CP, and 3% ataxic CP. The percentage of children classified as MACS levels I to V was 28%, 34%, 17%, 7%, and 14% respectively, and classified as GMFCS levels I to V was 46%, 16%, 15%, 11%, and 12% respectively.
Children classified as MACS and GMFCS levels I or II scored higher than children in MACS and GMFCS levels III to V on both the self-care and mobility domains of the PEDI, with significant differences between all classification levels (p<0.001). The stepwise multiple regression analysis verified that MACS was the strongest predictor of self-care skills (66%) and that GMFCS was the strongest predictor of mobility skills (76%). A strong correlation between age and self-care ability was found among children classified as MACS level I or II and between age and mobility among children classified as GMFCS level I. Many of these children achieved independence, but at a later age than typically developing children. Children at other MACS and GMFCS levels demonstrated minimal progress with age.
Knowledge of a child's MACS and GMFCS level can be useful when discussing expectations of, and goals for, the development of functional skills.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Walking deterioration occurs frequently in adults with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy (CP), but their gait characteristics are largely unknown. The study aims were (1) to compare selected gait analysis variables between those reporting and those not reporting walking deterioration, and (2) to characterise the overall gait deviations and classify the gait patterns. Participants (N=16) were recruited from a follow-up study, had spastic bilateral CP, <40 years in 2006, GMFCS levels I-III, and could walk at least 10m without support. Eight reported walking deterioration (cases) and eight did not (controls). A theoretical framework linking work of walking, fatigue and deterioration in walking was developed. It was hypothesised that higher energy requirements during gait and larger gait deviations would be associated with deterioration in walking. Three-dimensional gait analysis was used to obtain centre of mass work, mechanical joint work, lower limb kinematics, movement analysis profile (MAP), and gait profile scores (GPS). There were no differences between the cases and controls in centre of mass work, joint work, or in the GPS. The largest MAP deviations were seen in sagittal pelvis, hip, and knee angles and foot progression. Crouch and asymmetric gait were common patterns. Walking deterioration could not be explained by these work and kinematic variables. An individual's perception of deterioration in walking is subjective, and may be experienced and interpreted differently across people. Larger, longitudinal studies on the natural history of walking in spastic CP are needed. Qualitative studies on the subjective experiences of walking deterioration are also warranted.Gait & posture 07/2012; · 2.58 Impact Factor