Serum free light chain analysis.
ABSTRACT In a variety of hematologic malignancies, immunoglobulin light chains (LC) are overproduced clonally and circulate without being linked by disulphide bonds to the immunoglobulin heavy chain. The recent development of a robust assay known as κ and λ "free" LC (FLC) to quantify the levels of these unbound LC in the serum, and thereby determine their ratio, has led to an explosion of studies that demonstrate its utility in a wide range of hematologic disorders. This article summarizes laboratory testing for serum FLC, with a particular focus on clinical applications for the test.
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Article: [Amyloidosis].Terapevticheskii arkhiv 02/1998; 70(6):62-70. · 0.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The measurement of immunoglobulin serum free light chains (sFLC) has prognostic significance in plasma cell dyscrasias but its role in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is unknown. This retrospective study from three UK hospitals analysed sFLC in 181 untreated/pre-treatment CLL patients and 78 treated CLL patients, with samples taken later in their disease. An abnormal sFLC ratio was significantly associated with poor overall survival for the 181 untreated/pre-treatment patients (P = 0.0001) and for all patients (P = 0.002), irrespective of cause of death. Using multivariate analysis (n = 194), four independent prognostic variables for overall survival were identified namely Zap-70 (P = 0.0001), beta2M (P = 0.01), IGHV mutation status (P = 0.017) and an abnormal sFLC ratio (P = 0.024). For CLL patients with unmutated IGHV genes, elevated kappa/lambda ratios were adversely prognostic. For patients with mutated IGHV genes, reduced kappa/lambda ratios were adversely prognostic and associated with the poor prognostic IGHV3-21, IGHV3-48 and IGHV3-53 subgroups, suggesting an abnormal sFLC ratio may reflect biological subgroups within CLL. Abnormal sFLC ratios need to be studied prospectively in CLL patients and the biological rationale for their abnormality investigated.British Journal of Haematology 12/2008; 144(2):217-22. · 4.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Immune-related deficiencies are well-known complications of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Although recent data indicate that almost all CLL patients are preceded by a monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis precursor state, patterns of immune defects preceding CLL diagnosis are unclear. We identified 109 persons who developed CLL from the prospective and nationwide Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial with 77 469 participants, with serially collected prediagnostic serum samples. We assayed monoclonal (M)-proteins, kappa/lambda free light chains (FLCs) in prediagnostic obtained up to 9.8 years before CLL diagnosis. The prevalence of an abnormal FLC ratio, M-protein, and hypogamma-globulinemia before CLL diagnosis was 38% (95% confidence interval, 29%-47%), 13% (7%-21%), and 3% (1%-8%), respectively. M-proteins and abnormal FLC ratios were detected up to 9.8 years before CLL diagnosis in a total of 48 persons (44%). Hypogammaglobulinemia was not present until 3 years before the diagnosis of CLL. Among 37 patients with information on tumor cell immunophenotype, an association between immunophenotype and involved FLC (P = .024, Fisher exact test) was observed. Among 61 persons with a normal FLC ratio and without an M-protein, 17 had elevated kappa and/or lambda FLC levels, indicating polyclonal B-cell activation in 17 of 109 (16%) patients. These findings support a role for chronic immune stimulation in CLL genesis.Blood 10/2009; 114(24):4928-32. · 9.06 Impact Factor