Mediator and cohesin connect gene expression and chromatin architecture.
ABSTRACT Transcription factors control cell-specific gene expression programs through interactions with diverse coactivators and the transcription apparatus. Gene activation may involve DNA loop formation between enhancer-bound transcription factors and the transcription apparatus at the core promoter, but this process is not well understood. Here we report that mediator and cohesin physically and functionally connect the enhancers and core promoters of active genes in murine embryonic stem cells. Mediator, a transcriptional coactivator, forms a complex with cohesin, which can form rings that connect two DNA segments. The cohesin-loading factor Nipbl is associated with mediator-cohesin complexes, providing a means to load cohesin at promoters. DNA looping is observed between the enhancers and promoters occupied by mediator and cohesin. Mediator and cohesin co-occupy different promoters in different cells, thus generating cell-type-specific DNA loops linked to the gene expression program of each cell.
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ABSTRACT: The 26-subunit, 1.2 MDa human Mediator complex is essential for expression of perhaps all protein-coding genes. Activator binding triggers major structural shifts within Mediator, suggesting a straightforward means to spatially and temporally regulate Mediator activity. By using mass spectrometry (MudPIT) and other techniques, we have compared the subunit composition of Mediator in three different structural states: bound to the activator SREBP-1a, VP16, or an activator-free state. As expected, consensus Mediator subunits were similarly represented in each sample. However, we identify a set of cofactors that interact specifically with activator-bound but not activator-free Mediator, suggesting activator binding triggers new Mediator-cofactor interactions. Furthermore, MudPIT combined with biochemical assays reveals a nonoverlapping set of coregulatory factors associated with SREBP-Mediator vs. VP16-Mediator. These data define an expanded role for activators in regulating gene expression in humans and suggest that distinct, activator-induced structural shifts regulate Mediator function in gene-specific ways.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2010; 107(25):11283-8. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a multiple malformation disorder characterized by dysmorphic facial features, mental retardation, growth delay and limb reduction defects. We indentified and characterized a new gene, NIPBL, that is mutated in individuals with CdLS and determined its structure and the structures of mouse, rat and zebrafish homologs. We named its protein product delangin. Vertebrate delangins have substantial homology to orthologs in flies, worms, plants and fungi, including Scc2-type sister chromatid cohesion proteins, and D. melanogaster Nipped-B. We propose that perturbed delangin function may inappropriately activate DLX genes, thereby contributing to the proximodistal limb patterning defects in CdLS. Genome analyses typically identify individual delangin or Nipped-B-like orthologs in diploid animal and plant genomes. The evolution of an ancestral sister chromatid cohesion protein to acquire an additional role in developmental gene regulation suggests that there are parallels between CdLS and Roberts syndrome.Nature Genetics 07/2004; 36(6):636-41. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS; OMIM 122470) is a dominantly inherited multisystem developmental disorder characterized by growth and cognitive retardation; abnormalities of the upper limbs; gastroesophageal dysfunction; cardiac, ophthalmologic and genitourinary anomalies; hirsutism; and characteristic facial features. Genital anomalies, pyloric stenosis, congenital diaphragmatic hernias, cardiac septal defects, hearing loss and autistic and self-injurious tendencies also frequently occur. Prevalence is estimated to be as high as 1 in 10,000 (ref. 4). We carried out genome-wide linkage exclusion analysis in 12 families with CdLS and identified four candidate regions, of which chromosome 5p13.1 gave the highest multipoint lod score of 2.7. This information, together with the previous identification of a child with CdLS with a de novo t(5;13)(p13.1;q12.1) translocation, allowed delineation of a 1.1-Mb critical region on chromosome 5 for the gene mutated in CdLS. We identified mutations in one gene in this region, which we named NIPBL, in four sporadic and two familial cases of CdLS. We characterized the genomic structure of NIPBL and found that it is widely expressed in fetal and adult tissues. The fly homolog of NIPBL, Nipped-B, facilitates enhancer-promoter communication and regulates Notch signaling and other developmental pathways in Drosophila melanogaster.Nature Genetics 07/2004; 36(6):631-5. · 35.21 Impact Factor