Nuclear-localized calcineurin homologous protein CHP1 interacts with upstream binding factor and inhibits ribosomal RNA synthesis.
ABSTRACT Calcineurin homologous protein 1 (CHP1) is a widely expressed, 22-kDa myristoylated EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding protein that shares a high degree of similarity with the regulatory B subunit of calcineurin (65%) and with calmodulin (59%). CHP1 localizes to the plasma membrane, the Golgi apparatus, and the nucleus and functions to regulate trafficking of early secretory vesicles, activation of T cells, and expression and transport of the Na-H exchanger NHE1. Although CHP1 contains nuclear export signals, whether its nuclear and cytoplasmic localization is regulated and has distinct functions remain unknown. We show that CHP1 is predominantly in the nucleus in quiescent fibroblasts, is translocated to cytoplasmic compartments with growth medium, and that translocation is inhibited by mutations in the nuclear export motifs. In a screen for proteins co-precipitating with CHP1 in quiescent cells we identified the upstream binding factor UBF, a DNA-binding protein and component of the RNA polymerase I complex regulating RNA synthesis. The CHP1-UBF interaction is restricted to the nucleus and inhibited by Ca(2+). Nuclear retention of CHP1 attenuates the abundance of UBF in the nucleolus and inhibits RNA synthesis when quiescent cells are transferred to growth medium. These data show UBF as a newly identified CHP1-binding protein and regulation of RNA synthesis as a newly identified function for nuclear-localized CHP1, which is distinct from CHP1 functions in the cytosol.
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ABSTRACT: The calcineurin homologous protein (CHP) belongs to an evolutionarily conserved Ca(2+)-binding protein subfamily. The CHP subfamily is composed of CHP1, CHP2, and CHP3, which in vertebrates share significant homology at the protein level with each other and between other Ca(2+)-binding proteins. The CHP structure consists of two globular domains containing from one to four EF-hand structural motifs (calcium-binding regions composed of two helixes, E and F, joined by a loop), the myristoylation, and nuclear export signals. These structural features are essential for the function of the three members of the CHP subfamily. Indeed, CHP1-CHP3 have multiple and diverse essential functions, ranging from the regulation of the plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) exchanger protein function, to carrier vesicle trafficking and gene transcription. The diverse functions attributed to the CHP subfamily rendered an understanding of its action highly complex and often controversial. This review provides a comprehensive and organized examination of the properties and physiological roles of the CHP subfamily with a view to revealing a link between CHP diverse functions.AJP Renal Physiology 12/2011; 303(2):F165-79. DOI:10.1152/ajprenal.00628.2011 · 4.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Calcineurin, a heterodimer composed of the catalytic (CnaA) and regulatory (CnaB) subunits, plays key roles in growth, virulence and stress responses of fungi. To investigate the contribution of CnaA and CnaB to hyphal growth and septation, ΔcnaB and ΔcnaAΔcnaB strains of Aspergillus fumigatus were constructed. CnaA colocalizes to the contractile actin ring early during septation and remains at the centre of the mature septum. While CnaB's septal localization is CnaA-dependent, CnaA's septal localization is CnaB-independent, but CnaB is required for CnaA's function at the septum. Catalytic null mutations in CnaA caused stunted growth despite septal localization of the calcineurin complex, indicating the requirement of calcineurin activity at the septum. Compared to the ΔcnaA and ΔcnaB strains, the ΔcnaAΔcnaB strain displayed more defective growth and aberrant septation. While three Ca(2+) -binding motifs in CnaB were sufficient for its association with CnaA at the septum, the amino-terminal arginine-rich domains (16-RRRR-19 and 44-RLRKR-48) are dispensable for septal localization, yet required for complete functionality. Mutation of the 51-KLDK-54 motif in CnaB causes its mislocalization from the septum to the nucleus, suggesting it is a nuclear export signal sequence. These findings confirm a cooperative role for the calcineurin complex in regulating hyphal growth and septation.Molecular Microbiology 11/2011; 82(5):1235-59. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07886.x · 5.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective. Hypertension is one of the most common cardiovascular disorders with high mortality. Here we explored the antihypertension effects of Huanglian Jiedu Decoction (HJD) on thoracic aorta gene expression in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Methods. A rat model of spontaneous hypertension was used. The gene change profile of thoracic aorta after JHD treatment was assessed by GeneChip(GC) analysis using the Agilent Whole Rat Genome Oligo Microarray. Results. Hypertension induced 441 genes upregulated and 417 genes downregulated compared with the normal control group. Treatment of HJD resulted in 76 genes downregulated and 20 genes upregulated. GC data analysis showed that the majority of change genes were involved in immune system process, developmental process, and cell death. Conclusion. Hypertension altered expression of many genes that regulate various biological functions. HJD significantly reduced hypertension and altered the gene expression profiles of SHR rats. These changing genes were involved in many cellular functions such as regulating smooth muscle contraction, Ca(2+) homeostasis, and NO pathway. This study provides the potential novel insights into hypertension and antihypertension effects of HJD.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 03/2014; 2014:565784. DOI:10.1155/2014/565784 · 2.18 Impact Factor