Characterization of Erysipelothrix Species Isolates from Clinically Affected Pigs, Environmental Samples, and Vaccine Strains from Six Recent Swine Erysipelas Outbreaks in the United States

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.
Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI (Impact Factor: 2.47). 10/2010; 17(10):1605-11. DOI: 10.1128/CVI.00206-10
Source: PubMed


The aim of this study was to characterize Erysipelothrix sp. isolates from clinically affected pigs and their environment and compare them to the Erysipelothrix sp. vaccines used at the sites. Samples were collected during swine erysipelas outbreaks in vaccinated pigs in six Midwest United States swine operations from 2007 to 2009. Pig tissue samples were collected from 1 to 3 pigs from each site. Environmental samples (manure, feed, central-line water, oral fluids, and swabs collected from walls, feed lines, air inlets, exhaust fans, and nipple drinkers) and live vaccine samples were collected following the isolation of Erysipelothrix spp. from clinically affected pigs. All Erysipelothrix sp. isolates obtained were further characterized by serotyping. Selected isolates were further characterized by PCR assays for genotype (E. rhusiopathiae, E. tonsillarum, Erysipelothrix sp. strain 1, and Erysipelothrix sp. strain 2) and surface protective antigen (spa) type (A, B1, B2, and C). All 26 isolates obtained from affected pigs were E. rhusiopathiae, specifically, serotypes 1a, 1b, 2, and 21. From environmental samples, 56 isolates were obtained and 52/56 were E. rhusiopathiae (serotypes 1a, 1b, 2, 6, 9, 12, and 21), 3/56 were Erysipelothrix sp. strain 1 (serotypes 13 and untypeable), and one was a novel species designated Erysipelothrix sp. strain 3 (serotype untypeable). Four of six vaccines used at the sites were commercially available products and contained live E. rhusiopathiae serotype 1a. Of the remaining two vaccines, one was an autogenous live vaccine and contained live E. rhusiopathiae serotype 2 and one was a commercially produced inactivated vaccine and was described by the manufacturer to contain serotype 2 antigen. All E. rhusiopathiae isolates were positive for spaA. All Erysipelothrix sp. strain 1 isolates and the novel Erysipelothrix sp. strain 3 isolate were negative for all currently known spa types (A, B1, B2, and C). These results indicate that Erysipelothrix spp. can be isolated from the environment of clinically affected pigs; however, the identified serotypes in pigs differ from those in the environment at the selected sites. At one of the six affected sites, the vaccine strain and the isolates from clinically affected pigs were of homologous serotype; however, vaccinal and clinical isolates were of heterologous serotype at the remaining five sites, suggesting that reevaluation of vaccine efficacy using recent field strains may be warranted.

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    • "It is hypothesised that the disease can be actively introduced into a flock by pigs, rodents and the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) (Butcher and Panigrahy, 1985; Reboli and Farrar, 1989; Chirico et al., 2003; Mazaheri et al., 2006). Passive introduction into animal housing systems can occur from feed containing fish meal or contaminated soil, cages, clothes, shoes, drinkers, or manure (Butcher and Panigrahy, 1985; Reboli and Farrar, 1989; Bricker, 2008; Bender et al., 2010). After infection, laying hens show peracute death, reduced vigour , depression, diarrhoea and a drop in egg production (Bisgaard and Olsen, 1975; Bisgaard et al., 1980; Mutalib et al., 1993; Chirico et al., 2003; Bricker, 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Erysipelas was diagnosed in a free-range laying flock with a high mortality of up to 7% per day and a severe decrease in egg production to 45%. The disease had a short course and unusual clinical features for erysipelas, including swollen, lacrimating and encrusted eyes. Bacteriologically, trapped poultry red mites and affected animals were culture-positive for Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Isolates from layers and mites were both serotype 1b. Histopathology revealed disseminated intravasal coagulopathy in conjunctival small vessels as the cause of the oedema of the eye adnexes. After treatment with penicillin, mortality and egg production returned to normal levels. Although erysipelas in laying hens is rarely reported, it can develop as an emerging disease in alternative rearing systems and should always be considered if mortality increases in an older flock, especially with a high infestation of poultry red mites.
    Berliner und Münchener tierärztliche Wochenschrift 05/2014; 127(5-6):183-7. DOI:10.2376/0005-9366-127-183 · 0.82 Impact Factor
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    • "See Table S3 in the Supplemental Information for complete taxonomy information. enrichment in high-nitrate water samples was with Erysipelothrix spp., Firmicutes commonly associated with domesticated pigs (Bender et al., 2010; Coutinho et al., 2011; Ozawa et al., 2009) and known to infiltrate soil and groundwater following application of pig manure in farming areas (Hong et al., 2013). The presence of this taxon in drinking waters with high nitrate concentrations suggests a possible relationship between drinking water supplies and agricultural runoff of nitrate-based fertilizers, and potentially infiltration of bacterial species associated with livestock farming. "
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the nature of the microbiology in tap waters delivered to consumers via public drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs). In order to establish a broader understanding of the microbial complexity of public drinking waters we sampled tap water from seventeen different cities between the headwaters of the Arkansas River and the mouth of the Mississippi River and determined the bacterial compositions by pyrosequencing small subunit rRNA genes. Nearly 98% of sequences observed among all systems fell into only 5 phyla: Proteobacteria (35%), Cyanobacteria (29%, including chloroplasts), Actinobacteria (24%, of which 85% were Mycobacterium spp.), Firmicutes (6%), and Bacteroidetes (3.4%). The genus Mycobacterium was the most abundant taxon in the dataset, detected in 56 of 63 samples (16 of 17 cities). Among the more rare phylotypes, considerable variation was observed between systems, and was sometimes associated with the type of source water, the type of disinfectant, or the concentration of the environmental pollutant nitrate. Abundant taxa (excepting Cyanobacteria and chloroplasts) were generally similar from system to system, however, regardless of source water type or local land use. The observed similarity among the abundant taxa between systems may be a consequence of the selective influence of chlorine-based disinfection and the common local environments of DWDS and premise plumbing pipes.
    Water Research 11/2013; 49C:225-235. DOI:10.1016/j.watres.2013.11.027 · 5.53 Impact Factor
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    • "Pigs can be infected with E. rhusiopathiae infection by ingestion of contaminated feed or water or through skin abrasions (Opriessnig and Wood, 2012). Once infected, animals shed the organism in feces, urine, saliva and nasal secretions and successful isolation of E. rhusiopathiae or demonstration of its DNA in oral fluid samples has been described (Bender et al., 2010). Two novel serology assays, an in-house enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Giménez-Lirola et al., 2012a) and a fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay (FMIA) (Giménez- Lirola et al., 2012b) using a portion of the surface protective antigen (Spa) A, designated as SpaA415, were previously developed for detecting anti-Erysipelothrix spp. "
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    ABSTRACT: Swine erysipelas is an economically important disease caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Pen-based collection of oral fluids has recently been utilized for monitoring infection dynamics in swine operations. The diagnostic performance of bacterial isolation, real-time PCR, and antibody detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay (FMIA) methods were evaluated on pen-based oral fluid samples from pigs experimentally infected with E. rhusiopathiae (n=112) and from negative controls (n=32). While real-time PCR was a sensitive method with an overall detection rate of 100% (7/7 pens) one day post inoculation (dpi), E. rhusiopathiae was successfully isolated in only 28.6% (2/7 pens). Anti-Erysipelothrix IgM and IgG antibodies in pen-based oral fluids was detected at 4 to 5 dpi by FMIA and at 5 and 8 dpi by ELISA. The number of infected animals per pen, and in particular the timing of antimicrobial treatment administration impacted bacterial isolation and ELISA results. In oral fluid field samples, E. rhusiopathiae DNA was found in 23.3% of the samples while anti-E. rhusiopathiae IgG and IgM antibodies were found in 59.6% and 5.5% of the samples, respectively. The results suggest that an algorithm integrating oral fluids as specimen and real-time PCR and FMIA as detection methods is effective for earlier detection of an erysipelas outbreak thereby allowing for a more effective treatment outcome.
    Journal of microbiological methods 11/2012; 92(2). DOI:10.1016/j.mimet.2012.11.014 · 2.03 Impact Factor
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