Silver nanoparticle applications and human health. Clin Chim Acta

King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh-11451, Saudi Arabia.
Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.82). 12/2010; 411(23-24):1841-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.cca.2010.08.016
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Nanotechnology is rapidly growing with nanoparticles produced and utilized in a wide range of commercial products throughout the world. For example, silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) are used in electronics, bio-sensing, clothing, food industry, paints, sunscreens, cosmetics and medical devices. These broad applications, however, increase human exposure and thus the potential risk related to their short- and long-term toxicity. A large number of in vitro studies indicate that Ag NPs are toxic to the mammalian cells derived from skin, liver, lung, brain, vascular system and reproductive organs. Interestingly, some studies have shown that this particle has the potential to induce genes associated with cell cycle progression, DNA damage and apoptosis in human cells at non-cytotoxic doses. Furthermore, in vivo bio-distribution and toxicity studies in rats and mice have demonstrated that Ag NP administered by inhalation, ingestion or intra-peritoneal injection were subsequently detected in blood and caused toxicity in several organs including brain. Moreover, Ag NP exerted developmental and structural malformations in non-mammalian model organisms typically used to elucidate human disease and developmental abnormalities. The mechanisms for Ag NP induced toxicity include the effects of this particle on cell membranes, mitochondria and genetic material. This paper summarizes and critically assesses the current studies focusing on adverse effects of Ag NPs on human health.

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Available from: Maqusood Ahamed, Feb 03, 2014
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    • "In recent years, metal nanoparticles/polymer composites have attracted a great interest due to their wide range of applications in the biomedical field, and open a broad spectrum for the synthesis of new devices containing metal nanoparticles [111]. Natural and biodegradable polymers, such as chitosan and alginate, have been used as excipients to develop compounds with AgNPs focused in wound healing. "
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    ABSTRACT: The treatment of skin wounds represents an important research area due to the important physiological and aesthetic role of this tissue. During the last years, nanoparticles have emerged as important platforms to treat skin wounds. Silver, gold, and copper nanoparticles, as well as titanium and zinc oxide nanoparticles, have shown potential therapeutic effects on wound healing. Due to their specific characteristics, nanoparticles such as nanocapsules, polymersomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and polymeric nanocomplexes are ideal vehicles to improve the effect of drugs (antibiotics, growth factors, etc.) aimed at wound healing. On the other hand, if active excipients are added during the formulation, such as hyaluronate or chitosan, the nanomedicine could significantly improve its potential. In addition, the inclusion of nanoparticles in different pharmaceutical materials may enhance the beneficial effects of the formulations, and allow achieving a better dose control. This paper aims at reviewing significant findings in the area of nanoparticles and wound treatment. Among the reviewed topics, we underline formulations comprising inorganic, polymeric, surfactant self-assembled, and lipid nanosystems. Among the drugs included in the nanoformulations, the paper refers to antibiotics, natural extracts, proteins, and growth factors, among others. Finally, the paper also addresses nanoparticles embedded in secondary vehicles (fibers, dressings, hydrogels, etc.) that could improve their application and/or upgrade the release profile of the active.
    Current pharmaceutical design 08/2015; · 3.45 Impact Factor
    • "Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are estimated to currently have the highest degree of commercialization (Rejeski & Lekas, 2008) and are widely used in different medical arenas as drug delivery systems and instrumentation (Kumari & Yadav, 2011; You et al., 2012). Although previously viewed as non-toxic, an increasing number of studies report toxicity associated with AgNPs (Ahamed et al., 2008, 2010a,b; Choi et al., 2010). Titanium-dioxide NPs (TiO 2 -NPs) are the most common metal oxide NPs used in commercial products (Shukla et al., 2011a). "
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, we showed that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) caused apoptosis, necrosis and DNA strand breaks in different cell models in vitro. These findings warranted analyses of their relevance in vivo. We investigated the genotoxic potential and gene expression profiles of silver particles of nano- (Ag20, 20 nm) and submicron- (Ag200, 200 nm) size and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs, 21 nm) in selected tissues from exposed male mice including the gonades. A single dose of 5 mg/kg bw nanoparticles was administered intravenously to male mice derived from C57BL6 (WT) and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase knock-out (Ogg1−/− KO). Testis, lung and liver were harvested one and seven days post-exposure and analyzed for DNA strand breaks and oxidized purines employing the Comet assay with Formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) treatment, and sperm DNA fragmentation by the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). Based on an initial screening of a panel of 21 genes, seven genes were selected and their expression levels were analyzed in all lung and testis tissues sampled from all animals (n = 6 mice/treatment group) using qPCR. AgNPs, in particular Ag200, caused significantly increased levels of DNA strand breaks and alkali labile sites in lung, seven days post-exposure. Fpg-sensitive lesions were significantly induced in both testis and lung. The transcript level of some key genes; Atm, Rad51, Sod1, Fos and Mmp3, were significantly induced compared to controls, particularly in lung samples from Ag200-exposed KO mice. We conclude that the Ag200 causes genotoxicity and distinct gene expression patterns in selected DNA damage response and repair related genes.
    Nanotoxicology 08/2015; · 6.41 Impact Factor
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    • "The tiny size of AgNPs allows them to pass through cell membranes and other biological barrier, and therefore makes them to be easily taken up into living organisms and cause various cellular dysfunctions (Nel et al., 2006). The absorbed AgNPs generally have a short retention time but a broad tissue distribution in vivo (Ahamed et al., 2010; Dziendzikowska et al., 2012), with the highest concentration in the liver, followed by spleen, lung, and kidney (Dziendzikowska et al., 2012). Although the toxicity of AgNPs has been widely studied both in vivo and in vitro, results from different experiments remain inconsistent. "
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    ABSTRACT: Considering the increasing applications of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in food- and cosmetic-related products worldwide, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential adverse health effects induced by AgNPs exposure in terms of cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial injury in human A549 and HepG2 cells. After a 48 h AgNPs treatment, the cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Oxidative damage was determined by assays of malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-epi-PGF2α and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG). The protein expression of HSPA1A and HO-1 was analyzed by western blot analysis. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was detected by using JC-1 as fluorescent probes. The uptake and intracellular localization of AgNPs was measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and cellular AgNPs was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A dose-dependent decrease in cell viability after AgNPs treatment was observed, which was associated correspondingly with oxidative damage as indicated by increases in MDA amount, 8-epi-PGF2α and 8-oxo-dG levels, HSPA1A and HO-1 expression, as well as mitochondrial injury as indicated by decreased MMP. The cellular uptake of AgNPs measured by ICP-MS analysis was correlated correspondingly with the oxidative damage and mitochondrial injury. The dose-dependent cytotoxicity induced by AgNPs may result from an interaction of oxidative stress, DNA damage and mitochondrial injury in A549 and HepG2 cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Environmental Toxicology 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/tox.22171 · 3.20 Impact Factor
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