Silver nanoparticle applications and human health. Clin Chim Acta

King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh-11451, Saudi Arabia.
Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.82). 12/2010; 411(23-24):1841-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.cca.2010.08.016
Source: PubMed


Nanotechnology is rapidly growing with nanoparticles produced and utilized in a wide range of commercial products throughout the world. For example, silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) are used in electronics, bio-sensing, clothing, food industry, paints, sunscreens, cosmetics and medical devices. These broad applications, however, increase human exposure and thus the potential risk related to their short- and long-term toxicity. A large number of in vitro studies indicate that Ag NPs are toxic to the mammalian cells derived from skin, liver, lung, brain, vascular system and reproductive organs. Interestingly, some studies have shown that this particle has the potential to induce genes associated with cell cycle progression, DNA damage and apoptosis in human cells at non-cytotoxic doses. Furthermore, in vivo bio-distribution and toxicity studies in rats and mice have demonstrated that Ag NP administered by inhalation, ingestion or intra-peritoneal injection were subsequently detected in blood and caused toxicity in several organs including brain. Moreover, Ag NP exerted developmental and structural malformations in non-mammalian model organisms typically used to elucidate human disease and developmental abnormalities. The mechanisms for Ag NP induced toxicity include the effects of this particle on cell membranes, mitochondria and genetic material. This paper summarizes and critically assesses the current studies focusing on adverse effects of Ag NPs on human health.

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Available from: Maqusood Ahamed, Feb 03, 2014
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    • "In vivo KKS activation characterized by PPK cleavage showed the distinctive time-course for PK formation (Figure 4b) occurred in contrast to ex vivo results (Figure 2d) because multiple endogenous plasma protease inhibitors are constantly recruited to bind and degrade activated FXII and PK upon contact activation thus balancing the homeostasis in blood circulation (Kaplan et al., 1985; Schmaier & McCrae, 2007). Previous scientific studies on the evaluation of potential risks related to the short-and long-term toxicities (Ahamed et al., 2010) of AgNPs cover a wide range of dosages on cell cultures (from several to hundreds mg/mL) and in animal tests (from several to hundreds mg/kg body weight). Human bodies may also be exposed to AgNPs directly due to their medical usages including dental instruments, coating contact lenses, bandages, endodontic filling materials, medical catheters, cardiovascular implants, wound dressing, bone cement and other implants (Ge et al., 2014 "
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    ABSTRACT: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively used as antibacterial component in numerous healthcare, biomedical and consumer products. Therefore, their adverse effects to biological systems have become a major concern. AgNPs have been shown to be absorbed into circulation and redistributed into various organs. It is thus of great importance to understand how these nanoparticles affect vascular permeability and uncover the underlying molecular mechanisms. A negatively charged mecaptoundeonic acid-capped silver nanoparticle (MUA@AgNP) was investigated in this work. Ex vivo experiments in mouse plasma revealed that MUA@AgNPs caused plasma prekallikrein cleavage, while positively charged or neutral AgNPs, as well as Ag ions had no effect. In vitro tests revealed that MUA@AgNPs activated the plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) by triggering Hageman factor autoactivation. By using specific inhibitors aprotinin and HOE 140, we demonstrated that KKS activation caused the release of bradykinin, which activated B2 receptors and induced the shedding of adherens junction protein, VE-cadherin. These biological perturbations eventually resulted in endothelial paracellular permeability in mouse retina after intravitreal injection of MUA@AgNPs. The findings from this work provided key insights for toxicity modulation and biomedical applications of AgNPs.
    Nanotoxicology 09/2015; DOI:10.3109/17435390.2015.1088589 · 6.41 Impact Factor
    • "In recent years, metal nanoparticles/polymer composites have attracted a great interest due to their wide range of applications in the biomedical field, and open a broad spectrum for the synthesis of new devices containing metal nanoparticles [111]. Natural and biodegradable polymers, such as chitosan and alginate, have been used as excipients to develop compounds with AgNPs focused in wound healing. "
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    ABSTRACT: The treatment of skin wounds represents an important research area due to the important physiological and aesthetic role of this tissue. During the last years, nanoparticles have emerged as important platforms to treat skin wounds. Silver, gold, and copper nanoparticles, as well as titanium and zinc oxide nanoparticles, have shown potential therapeutic effects on wound healing. Due to their specific characteristics, nanoparticles such as nanocapsules, polymersomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and polymeric nanocomplexes are ideal vehicles to improve the effect of drugs (antibiotics, growth factors, etc.) aimed at wound healing. On the other hand, if active excipients are added during the formulation, such as hyaluronate or chitosan, the nanomedicine could significantly improve its potential. In addition, the inclusion of nanoparticles in different pharmaceutical materials may enhance the beneficial effects of the formulations, and allow achieving a better dose control. This paper aims at reviewing significant findings in the area of nanoparticles and wound treatment. Among the reviewed topics, we underline formulations comprising inorganic, polymeric, surfactant self-assembled, and lipid nanosystems. Among the drugs included in the nanoformulations, the paper refers to antibiotics, natural extracts, proteins, and growth factors, among others. Finally, the paper also addresses nanoparticles embedded in secondary vehicles (fibers, dressings, hydrogels, etc.) that could improve their application and/or upgrade the release profile of the active.
    Current pharmaceutical design 08/2015; 21(29). DOI:10.2174/1381612821666150901104601 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    • "Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are estimated to currently have the highest degree of commercialization (Rejeski & Lekas, 2008) and are widely used in different medical arenas as drug delivery systems and instrumentation (Kumari & Yadav, 2011; You et al., 2012). Although previously viewed as non-toxic, an increasing number of studies report toxicity associated with AgNPs (Ahamed et al., 2008, 2010a,b; Choi et al., 2010). Titanium-dioxide NPs (TiO 2 -NPs) are the most common metal oxide NPs used in commercial products (Shukla et al., 2011a). "
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, we showed that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) caused apoptosis, necrosis and DNA strand breaks in different cell models in vitro. These findings warranted analyses of their relevance in vivo. We investigated the genotoxic potential and gene expression profiles of silver particles of nano- (Ag20, 20 nm) and submicron- (Ag200, 200 nm) size and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs, 21 nm) in selected tissues from exposed male mice including the gonades. A single dose of 5 mg/kg bw nanoparticles was administered intravenously to male mice derived from C57BL6 (WT) and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase knock-out (Ogg1−/− KO). Testis, lung and liver were harvested one and seven days post-exposure and analyzed for DNA strand breaks and oxidized purines employing the Comet assay with Formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) treatment, and sperm DNA fragmentation by the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). Based on an initial screening of a panel of 21 genes, seven genes were selected and their expression levels were analyzed in all lung and testis tissues sampled from all animals (n = 6 mice/treatment group) using qPCR. AgNPs, in particular Ag200, caused significantly increased levels of DNA strand breaks and alkali labile sites in lung, seven days post-exposure. Fpg-sensitive lesions were significantly induced in both testis and lung. The transcript level of some key genes; Atm, Rad51, Sod1, Fos and Mmp3, were significantly induced compared to controls, particularly in lung samples from Ag200-exposed KO mice. We conclude that the Ag200 causes genotoxicity and distinct gene expression patterns in selected DNA damage response and repair related genes.
    Nanotoxicology 08/2015; · 6.41 Impact Factor
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