Immune regulatory cytokines in the milk of lactating women from farming and urban environments.
ABSTRACT Children living on farms have fewer allergies. It is unclear whether breastfeeding in different environments contributes to preventing allergies by exposing offspring to different cytokines that can modulate immune responses. The aim of this study was to quantify and compare levels of Transforming Growth Factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the colostrum and mature milk of mothers living in towns at sea level (references) and mothers on farms. Milk samples were collected within 3 days postpartum (colostrum) and at the first month of the baby's life (mature milk). Sixty-nine reference mothers and 45 farm mothers participated in the study. TGF-beta1 concentrations were significantly higher both in the colostrum (p < 0.05) and in mature milk (p < 0.05) of farm mothers. In the reference mothers, a significant decrease in TGF-beta1 concentrations was observed between colostrum (650, range 0-8000 pg/ml) and mature milk (250, range 0-8000 pg/ml) (p < 0.05). In farm mothers, TGF-beta1 concentrations were 1102 pg/ml (range 0-14,500) in colostrum and remained high in mature milk (821 pg/ml, range 0-14,650). IL-10 concentrations were higher in the mature milk of farm mothers (p < 0.05). No significant differences in IL-10 were observed between colostrum and mature milk in the control group (15 pg/ml, range 0-1800, and 0 pg/ml, range 0-230) or in farm mothers (9.5 pg/ml, range 0-1775, and 14.2 pg/ml, range 0-930), respectively. Exposure to a farm environment is associated with higher concentrations of TGF-beta1 and IL-10 in breast milk when compared to exposure to an urban environment. Higher cytokine concentrations in breast milk may influence early modulation of the development of an immune response, leading to a reduced prevalence of allergy-related diseases in farm children.
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ABSTRACT: There is conflicting evidence on the protective role of breastfeeding in relation to allergic sensitisation and disease. The factors in breast milk which influence these processes are still unclear and under investigation. We know that colostrum and breast milk contain a variety of molecules which can influence immune responses in the gut associated lymphoid tissue of a neonate. This review summarises the evidence that variations in colostrum and breast milk composition can influence allergic outcomes in the infant, and the evidence that maternal and environmental factors can modify milk composition. Taken together, the data presented support the possibility that maternal dietary interventions may be an effective way to promote infant health through modification of breast milk composition.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Clinical & Experimental Allergy 07/2014; DOI:10.1111/cea.12381 · 4.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Early in life HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are at an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from infectious disease compared to HIV-unexposed (UE) infants. To improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying their increased risk, we contrasted innate immune development between HEU and UE infants in a developing world setting, where early-life infectious disease risk is exceptionally high. A prospective longitudinal cohort of HEU and UE newborns was established and the most detailed characterization to date of HEU infant immune development was performed. Single-cell cytokine production was analyzed by flow cytometry after stimulation of whole blood with pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMP). Monocyte, classical dendritic cell and plasmacytoid dendritic cell composition was similar between HEU and UE infants throughout the first year of life. However, HEU mononuclear cells mounted an enhanced pro-inflammatory response to PAMP stimulation, both in quantity of cytokine produced per-cell and in proportion of responder cells. Significant differences in cytokine production were detected on the single cell level in a PAMP-specific pattern, but only at 2 and 6 weeks of age; all differences normalized by 12 months of age. This time course of innate immune deviation early in life corresponds to the clinical window of vulnerability to infections in HEU infants and may be at least partially responsible for their increased morbidity and mortality from infectious disease.JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 04/2014; 66(3). DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000161 · 4.39 Impact Factor
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.04.002 · 11.25 Impact Factor