Evaluation of tumor motion effects on dose distribution for hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy of non-small-cell lung cancer

Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA.
Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics (Impact Factor: 1.17). 01/2010; 11(3):3182.
Source: PubMed


Respiration-induced tumor motion during intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) could cause substantial differences between planned and delivered doses. While it has been shown that, for conventionally fractionated IMRT, motion effects average out over the course of many treatments, this might not be true for hypofractionated IMRT (IMHFRT). Numerical simulations were performed for nine NSCLC patients (11 tumors) to evaluate this problem. Dose distributions to the Clinical Target Volume (CTV) and Internal Target Volume (ITV) were retrospectively calculated using the previously-calculated leaf motion files but with the addition of typical periodic motion (i.e. amplitude 0.36-1.26cm, 3-8sec period). A typical IMHFRT prescription of 20Gy x 3 fractions was assumed. For the largest amplitude (1.26 cm), the average +/- standard deviation of the ratio of simulated to planned mean dose, minimum dose, D95 and V95 were 0.98+/-0.01, 0.88 +/- 0.09, 0.94 +/- 0.05 and 0.94 +/- 0.07 for the CTV, and 0.99 +/-0.01, 0.99 +/- 0.03, 0.98 +/- 0.02 and 1.00 +/- 0.01 for the ITV, respectively. There was minimal dependence on period or initial phase. For typical tumor geometries and respiratory amplitudes, changes in target coverage are minimal but can be significant for larger amplitudes, faster beam delivery, more highly-modulated fields, and smaller field margins.

10 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Localization prior to delivery of SBRT to free-breathing patients is performed by aligning the planning internal target volume (ITV) from 4DCT with an on-board free-breathing cone-beam CT (FB-CBCT) image. The FB-CBCT image is assumed to also generate an ITV that captures the full range of motion, due to the acquisition spanning multiple respiratory cycles. However, the ITV could potentially be underestimated when the ratio of time spent in inspiration versus time spent in expiration (I/E ratio) deviates from unity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of variable I/E ratios on the FB ITV generated from a FB-CBCT scan. This study employed both phantom and patient imaging data. For the phantom study, five periodic respiratory cycles were simulated with different I/E ratios. Six patient respiratory cycles with variable I/E ratios were also selected. All profiles were then programmed into a motion phantom for imaging and modified to exhibit three peak-to-peak motion amplitudes (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 cm). Each profile was imaged using two spherical targets with 1.0 and 3.0 cm diameters. 2D projections were acquired with full gantry rotation of a kiloVoltage (kV) imager mounted onto the gantry of a modem linear accelerator. CBCT images were reconstructed from 2D projections using a standard filtered back-projection reconstruction algorithm. Quantitative analyses for the phantom study included computing the change in contrast along the direction of target motion as well as determining the area (which is proportional to the target volume) inside of the contour extracted using a Canny edge detector. For the patient study, projection data that were previously acquired under an investigational 4D CBCT slow-gantry imaging protocol were used to generate both FB-CBCT and 4D CBCT images. Volumes were then manually contoured from both datasets (using the same window and level) for quantitative comparison. The phantom study indicated a reduction in contrast at the inferior edge of the ITV (corresponding to inspiration) as the ratio decreased, for both simulated and patient respiratory cycles. For the simulated phantom respiratory cycles, the contrast reduction of the smallest I/E ratio was 27.6% for the largest target with the smallest amplitude and 89.7% for the smallest target with the largest amplitude. For patient respiratory cycles, these numbers were 22.3% and 94.0%, respectively. The extracted area from inside of the target contours showed a decreasing trend as the I/E ratio decreased. In the patient study, the FB-CBCT ITVs of both lung tumors studied were underestimated when compared with their corresponding 4D CBCT ITV. The underestimations found were 40.1% for the smaller tumor and 24.2% for the larger tumor. The ITV may be underestimated in a FB-CBCT image when a patient's respiratory pattern is characterized by a disparate length of time spent in inspiration versus expiration. Missing the full target motion information during on-board verification imaging may result in localization errors.
    Medical Physics 08/2011; 38(8):4689-99. DOI:10.1118/1.3613153 · 2.64 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: At present lung tumor radiation therapy has entered the accurate radiotherapy era. Precise radiotherapy includes intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). During the process of implementing precise radiotherapy, these problems should be fully considered to ensure executing precise radiotherapy accurately: patient positioning, controlling of the lung tumor motion, selecting of image techniques, PTV margin, dose prescription and reporting, arrangement of beams, controlling of dose volume and treatment delivering.
    Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer 11/2011; 14(11):894-9. DOI:10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2011.11.12
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Superior sulcus non-small cell lung cancer represents less than 5% of all lung cancers and is a challenge for the physicians because of clinical presentation, treatments related toxicities and poor prognosis. The aim of this preliminary retrospective report is to present outcomes of patients affected by a superior sulcus non-small cell lung cancer, treated by high dose radiotherapy (>60 Gy) with or with our chemotherapy. All adult inoperable or unresectable patients (≥18 years) with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of superior sulcus non-small cell lung cancer treated in our department by radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy were retrospectively analysed. Primary endpoint was the local control. Overall survival, metastasis free survival and toxicity rates were also analysed and reported. From January 1999 to June 2009, 12 patients were treated by exclusive high-dose radiochemotherapy. Median age was 53 years (range: 33-64 years); mean follow-up time was 20 months (range: 2-75 months). Mean local control, overall survival and metastasis free survival were 20.2, 22 and 20 months, respectively. At the time of this analysis, seven patients died of cancer and three of them presented only a metastatic disease progression. One patient died of acute cardiac failure 36 months after the end of radiochemotherapy and was disease free. Treatment was well tolerated and any acute and/or late G3-4 toxicity was recorded (NCI-CTC v 3.0 score). This analysis confirms the interest of exclusive high-dose radiochemotherapy in treating inoperable superior sulcus non-small cell lung cancer patients, in achieving good local control and overall survival rates.
    Cancer/Radiothérapie 02/2012; 16(2):107-14. DOI:10.1016/j.canrad.2011.10.009 · 1.41 Impact Factor
Show more


10 Reads
Available from