Isolation of equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: a comparison between three protocols.
ABSTRACT REASON FOR PERFORMING THE STUDY: There is a need to assess and standardise equine bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) isolation protocols in order to permit valid comparisons between therapeutic trials at different sites.
To compare 3 protocols of equine BM MSC isolation: adherence to a plastic culture dish (Classic) and 2 gradient density separation protocols (Percoll and Ficoll).
BM aspirates were harvested from the sternum of 6 mares and MSCs isolated by all 3 protocols. The cell viability after isolation, MSC yield, number of MSCs attained after 14 days of culture and the functional characteristics (self-renewal (CFU) and multilineage differentiation capacity) were determined for all 3 protocols.
The mean +/- s.d. MSC yield from the Percoll protocol was significantly higher (6.8 +/- 3.8%) than the Classic protocol (1.3 +/- 0.7%). The numbers of MSCs recovered after 14 days culture per 10 ml BM sample were 24.0 +/- 12.1, 14.6 +/- 9.5 and 4.1 +/- 2.5 x 10(6) for the Percoll, Ficoll and Classic protocols, respectively, significantly higher for the Percoll compared with the Classic protocol. Importantly, no significant difference in cell viability or in osteogenic or chondrogenic differentiation was identified between the protocols. At Passage 0, cells retrieved with the Ficoll protocol had lower self-renewal capacity when compared with the Classic protocol but there was no significant difference between protocols at Passage 1. There were no significant differences between the 3 protocols for the global frequencies of CFUs at Passage 0 or 1.
These data suggest that the Percoll gradient density separation protocol was the best in terms of MSC yield and self-renewal potential of the MSCs retrieved and that MSCs retrieved with the Ficoll protocol had the lowest self-renewal but only at passage 0. Then, the 3 protocols were equivalent. However, the Percoll protocol should be considered for equine MSC isolation to minimise culture time.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neutrophils are the predominant cells recruited in the airways of horses suffering from heaves. These cells have been shown to express arginase in some species. The metabolism of L-arginine is thought to be involved in chronic inflammation, and airway obstruction and remodeling. The aim of this study was to assess the expression, regulation, activity, and functional role of arginase isoforms in equine neutrophils. Arginase I, arginase II, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) expression were assessed in resting and stimulated (IL-4, LPS/fMLP, PMA; 5 and 18 h) blood neutrophils using quantitative PCR. Arginase expression was also studied by western blot and enzyme activity assay. The effect of nor-NOHA (1 mM), a specific arginase inhibitor, was assessed on arginase activity in vitro and ex vivo on neutrophil's inflammatory gene expression and viability. Results showed that equine neutrophils constitutively express arginase isoform 2,ODC and OAT. Neutrophil ex vivo stimulation did not induce arginase I nor influence arginase II mRNA expression. Ex vivo inhibition of arginase activity by nor-NOHA had no effect on neutrophils inflammatory gene expression induced by LPS/fMLP (5 h) but significantly reversed the cell loss observed after this stimulation.Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 01/2013; · 1.88 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The treatment of tendon lesions with multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is widely used in equine medicine. Cell sources of MSCs include bone marrow, as well as solid tissues such as adipose tissue. MSCs can be isolated from these solid tissues either by enzymatic digestion or by explant technique. However, the different preparation techniques may potentially influence the properties of the isolated MSCs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of these two different methods used to isolate MSCs from solid tissues.Equine adipose tissue, tendon and umbilical cord matrix served as solid tissue sources of MSCs with different stiffness and density. Subsequent to tissue harvest, MSCs were isolated either by enzymatic digestion with collagenase or by explant technique. Cell yield, growth, differentiation potential and tendon marker expression were analysed. At first passage, the MSC yield was significantly higher in enzymatically digested tissue samples than in explanted tissue samples, despite a shorter period of time in primary culture. Further analysis of cell proliferation, migration and differentiation revealed no significant differences between MSCs isolated by enzymatic digestion and MSCs isolated by explant technique. Interestingly, analysis of gene expression of tendon markers revealed a significantly higher expression level of scleraxis in MSCs isolated by enzymatic digestion. Both isolation techniques are feasible methods for successful isolation of MSCs from solid tissues, with no major effects on cellular proliferation, migration or differentiation characteristics. However, higher MSC yields were achieved in a shorter period of time by collagenase digestion, which is advantageous for the therapeutic use of MSCs. Moreover, based on the higher level of expression of scleraxis in MSCs isolated by enzymatic digestion, these cells might be a better choice when attempting tendon regeneration.BMC Veterinary Research 10/2013; 9(1):221. · 1.86 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) and its ligands CCL19 contributes to the directional migration of certain cancer cell lines, but its role in the migration of BMSCs remains vague. The aim of this study was to determine the possible interaction between CCL19-induced conditions and matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP9) expression in BMSCs. Cell migration using Transwell assay indicated that activation of CCR7 by its specific ligand, exogenous chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19), was associated with a significant linear increase. Western blot and real-time PCR indicated that CCL19/CCR7 significantly upregulated expression of MMP9, which is related to metastasis-associated genes. The CCL19/CCR7 interaction significantly enhanced phosphorylation of Akt, as measured by Western blot. P-Akt and MMP9 protein expression exhibited a time-dependent pattern, and the peak was at 48h. LY294002 significantly abolished the effects of exogenous CCL19. These results suggest that CCL19/CCR7 contributes to the migration of BMSCs by upregulating MMP9 potentially via the PI3K/Akt pathway.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor