Isolation of equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: a comparison between three protocols.
ABSTRACT REASON FOR PERFORMING THE STUDY: There is a need to assess and standardise equine bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) isolation protocols in order to permit valid comparisons between therapeutic trials at different sites.
To compare 3 protocols of equine BM MSC isolation: adherence to a plastic culture dish (Classic) and 2 gradient density separation protocols (Percoll and Ficoll).
BM aspirates were harvested from the sternum of 6 mares and MSCs isolated by all 3 protocols. The cell viability after isolation, MSC yield, number of MSCs attained after 14 days of culture and the functional characteristics (self-renewal (CFU) and multilineage differentiation capacity) were determined for all 3 protocols.
The mean +/- s.d. MSC yield from the Percoll protocol was significantly higher (6.8 +/- 3.8%) than the Classic protocol (1.3 +/- 0.7%). The numbers of MSCs recovered after 14 days culture per 10 ml BM sample were 24.0 +/- 12.1, 14.6 +/- 9.5 and 4.1 +/- 2.5 x 10(6) for the Percoll, Ficoll and Classic protocols, respectively, significantly higher for the Percoll compared with the Classic protocol. Importantly, no significant difference in cell viability or in osteogenic or chondrogenic differentiation was identified between the protocols. At Passage 0, cells retrieved with the Ficoll protocol had lower self-renewal capacity when compared with the Classic protocol but there was no significant difference between protocols at Passage 1. There were no significant differences between the 3 protocols for the global frequencies of CFUs at Passage 0 or 1.
These data suggest that the Percoll gradient density separation protocol was the best in terms of MSC yield and self-renewal potential of the MSCs retrieved and that MSCs retrieved with the Ficoll protocol had the lowest self-renewal but only at passage 0. Then, the 3 protocols were equivalent. However, the Percoll protocol should be considered for equine MSC isolation to minimise culture time.
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ABSTRACT: The treatment of tendon lesions with multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is widely used in equine medicine. Cell sources of MSCs include bone marrow, as well as solid tissues such as adipose tissue. MSCs can be isolated from these solid tissues either by enzymatic digestion or by explant technique. However, the different preparation techniques may potentially influence the properties of the isolated MSCs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of these two different methods used to isolate MSCs from solid tissues.Equine adipose tissue, tendon and umbilical cord matrix served as solid tissue sources of MSCs with different stiffness and density. Subsequent to tissue harvest, MSCs were isolated either by enzymatic digestion with collagenase or by explant technique. Cell yield, growth, differentiation potential and tendon marker expression were analysed. At first passage, the MSC yield was significantly higher in enzymatically digested tissue samples than in explanted tissue samples, despite a shorter period of time in primary culture. Further analysis of cell proliferation, migration and differentiation revealed no significant differences between MSCs isolated by enzymatic digestion and MSCs isolated by explant technique. Interestingly, analysis of gene expression of tendon markers revealed a significantly higher expression level of scleraxis in MSCs isolated by enzymatic digestion. Both isolation techniques are feasible methods for successful isolation of MSCs from solid tissues, with no major effects on cellular proliferation, migration or differentiation characteristics. However, higher MSC yields were achieved in a shorter period of time by collagenase digestion, which is advantageous for the therapeutic use of MSCs. Moreover, based on the higher level of expression of scleraxis in MSCs isolated by enzymatic digestion, these cells might be a better choice when attempting tendon regeneration.BMC Veterinary Research 10/2013; 9(1):221. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In vitro cellular proliferation and the ability to undergo multilineage differentiation make bone marrow-derived multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) potentially useful for clinical applications. Several methods have been described to isolate a homogenous bone marrow-derived MSCs population; however, none has been proven most effective, mainly due to their effects on proliferation and differentiation capability of the isolated cells. It is hypothesized that our newly established total cell pooling method may provide a better alternative as compared to the standard isolation method (density gradient centrifugation method). For the total cell pooling method, MSCs were isolated from rabbit bone marrow and were subsequently cultured in the growth medium without further separation as in the standard isolation method. The total cell pooling method was 65 min faster than the standard isolation method in completing cell isolation. Nevertheless, both methods did not differ significantly in the number of primary viable cells and population doubling time in the cultures (p > 0.05). The isolated cells from both methods expressed CD29 and CD44 markers, but not CD45 markers. Furthermore, they displayed multilineage differentiation characteristics of chondroblasts, osteoblasts, and adipocytes. In conclusion, both methods provide similar efficiency in the isolation of rabbit bone marrow-derived MSCs; however, the total cell pooling method is technically simpler and more cost effective than the standard isolation method.In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Animal 05/2013; · 1.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease of joint tissues that causes articular cartilage erosion, osteophytosis and loss of function due to pain. Inflammation and inflammatory cytokines in synovial fluid (SF) contribute to OA progression. Intra-articular (IA) injections of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells' (MSCs) are employed to treat OA in both humans and animals. MSCs secrete paracrine pro-inflammatory and anabolic signaling molecules that promote tissue repair. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of OA synovial fluid on the gene expression of paracrine signaling molecules by MSCs. METHODS: The effects of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and IL-1β as well as both normal (N) and OA (OA) SF stimulations on the expression of paracrine pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8), modulatory (IL-6) and anabolic (VEGF, TGF-β1 and IGF-1) signaling molecules by equine bone marrow derived MSCs (eBM-MSCs) was investigated employing RT-PCR. RESULTS: In contrast with NSF, OASF significantly up-regulated the expression of VEGF in eBM-MSCs. Both NSF and OASF significantly down-regulated the expression of IL-1β. LPS and IL-1β significantly increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-8 and IL-6; and IL-1β and IL-8 respectively). Discussion: We conclude that the transcription of paracrine signaling molecules in eBM-MSCs is modulated by SF. Furthermore, OA alters the properties of SF and the response of eBM-MSCs. Finally, the effects of LPS or IL-1β stimulation are distinct to that observed following stimulations with OASF.Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 05/2013; · 4.26 Impact Factor