Phosphorylation as a posttranslational protein modification is a common subject of proteomic studies, but phosphorylation in mitochondria is still poorly investigated. The study presented here applied 2-DE to characterize phosphorylation in the yeast mitochondrial proteome and identified 59 spots corresponding to 34 phosphorylated mitochondrial or mitochondria-associated proteins. Most of these proteins presented putative substrates of mitogen-activated protein and target of rapamycin kinases, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, cyclin-dependent kinases and Snf1p suggesting them as key players in the phosphorylation of mitochondrial or mitochondria-associated proteins. The dynamic behaviour of the phosphoproteome under a major metabolic change, the shift from fermentation to respiration (diauxic shift), was further studied. Eight proteins (Ald4p, Eft1p/2p, Eno1p, Eno2p, Om14p, Pda1p, Qcr2p, Sdh1p) had growth dependent changes in their phosphorylation, indicating a role of phosphorylation-dependent regulation of translation, metabolic pathways (e.g. glucose fermentation, tricarboxylic acid cycle, pyruvate dehydrogenase and its bypass) and respiratory chain.
"Few global quantitative phosphoproteomic and proteomic studies have been carried on yeast grown on different carbon sources but mostly on whole cell extracts   and the lack of subfractionation limited the access of information on mitochondrial proteins. Two qualitative studies focused on a subset of mitochondrial proteins, but the use of 2D gel electrophoresis   limited the access to hydrophobic or basic proteins and to those of very high or very low molecular weight. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a facultative aerobe able to adapt its metabolism according to the carbon substrate. The mechanisms of these adaptations involve at least partly the mitochondria but are not yet well understood. To address the possible role of protein phosphorylation event in their regulation, it is necessary in a first instance to determine precisely the phosphorylation sites that show changes depending on the carbon source. In this aim we performed an overall quantitative proteomic and phosphoproteomic study of isolated mitochondria extracted from yeast grown on fermentative (glucose or galactose) and respiratory (lactate) media. Label free quantitative analysis of protein accumulation revealed significant variation of 176 mitochondrial proteins including 108 proteins less accumulated in glucose medium than in lactate and galactose media. We also showed that the responses to galactose and glucose are not similar. Stable isotope dimethyl labeling allowed the quantitative comparison of phosphorylation levels between the different growth conditions. This study enlarges significantly the map of yeast mitochondrial phosphosites as 670 phosphorylation sites were identified, of which 214 were new and quantified. Above all, we showed that 90 phosphosites displayed a significant variation according to the medium and that variation of phosphorylation level is site-dependent.
Journal of proteomics 04/2014; 106. DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2014.04.022 · 3.89 Impact Factor
"This is consistent with the finding that glucose-repressed cells contain fewer F1 particles in mitochondria as observed by electron microscopy of negatively stained mitochondria membranes . It has been reported that many of the mitochondrial proteins such as Atp1p, Atp2p, Atp4p, Atp5p, Atp15p, Atp16p, and Atp20p are phosphorylated . We suggest that protein degradation, protein modifications, allosteric inhibition, and subunit assembly may all contribute to the known decreased activities of mitochondrial enzymes that consist of multiple subunits. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
When glucose is added to Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in non-fermentable carbon sources, genes encoding ribosomal, cell-cycle, and glycolytic proteins are induced. By contrast, genes involved in mitochondrial functions, gluconeogenesis, and the utilization of other carbon sources are repressed. Glucose also causes the activation of the plasma membrane ATPase and the inactivation of gluconeogenic enzymes and mitochondrial enzymes. The goals of this study were to use the iTRAQ-labeling mass spectrometry technique to identify proteins whose relative levels change in response to glucose re-feeding and to correlate changes in protein abundance with changes in transcription and enzymatic activities. We used an experimental condition that causes the degradation of gluconeogenic enzymes when glucose starved cells are replenished with glucose. Identification of these enzymes as being down-regulated by glucose served as an internal control. Furthermore, we sought to identify new proteins that were either up-regulated or down-regulated by glucose.
We have identified new and known proteins that change their relative levels in cells that were transferred from medium containing low glucose to medium containing high glucose. Up-regulated proteins included ribosomal subunits, proteins involved in protein translation, and the plasma membrane ATPase. Down-regulated proteins included small heat shock proteins, mitochondrial proteins, glycolytic enzymes, and gluconeogenic enzymes. Ach1p is involved in acetate metabolism and is also down-regulated by glucose.
We have identified known proteins that have previously been reported to be regulated by glucose as well as new glucose-regulated proteins. Up-regulation of ribosomal proteins and proteins involved in translation may lead to an increase in protein synthesis and in nutrient uptake. Down-regulation of glycolytic enzymes, gluconeogenic enzymes, and mitochondrial proteins may result in changes in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and mitochondrial functions. These changes may be beneficial for glucose-starved cells to adapt to the addition of glucose.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CoQ(6) (coenzyme Q(6)) biosynthesis in yeast is a well-regulated process that requires the final conversion of the late intermediate DMQ(6) (demethoxy-CoQ(6)) into CoQ(6) in order to support respiratory metabolism in yeast. The gene CAT5/COQ7 encodes the Cat5/Coq7 protein that catalyses the hydroxylation step of DMQ(6) conversion into CoQ(6). In the present study, we demonstrated that yeast Coq7 recombinant protein purified in bacteria can be phosphorylated in vitro using commercial PKA (protein kinase A) or PKC (protein kinase C) at the predicted amino acids Ser(20), Ser(28) and Thr(32). The total absence of phosphorylation in a Coq7p version containing alanine instead of these phospho-amino acids, the high extent of phosphorylation produced and the saturated conditions maintained in the phosphorylation assay indicate that probably no other putative amino acids are phosphorylated in Coq7p. Results from in vitro assays have been corroborated using phosphorylation assays performed in purified mitochondria without external or commercial kinases. Coq7p remains phosphorylated in fermentative conditions and becomes dephosphorylated when respiratory metabolism is induced. The substitution of phosphorylated residues to alanine dramatically increases CoQ(6) levels (256%). Conversely, substitution with negatively charged residues decreases CoQ(6) content (57%). These modifications produced in Coq7p also alter the ratio between DMQ(6) and CoQ(6) itself, indicating that the Coq7p phosphorylation state is a regulatory mechanism for CoQ(6) synthesis.
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