[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: WHIM syndrome (WS), a rare congenital neutropenia due to mutations of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor, is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-induced Warts, Hypogammaglobulinemia, bacterial Infections and Myelokathexis. The long term follow up of eight patients highlights the clinical heterogeneity of this disease as well as the main therapeutic approaches and remaining challenges in the light of the recent development of new CXCR4 inhibitors. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the natural history of WS based on a French cohort of 8 patients. METHODS: We have reviewed the clinical, biological and immunological features of patients with WS enrolled into the French Severe Chronic Neutropenia Registry. RESULTS: We identified four pedigrees with WS comprised of eight patients and one fetus. Estimated incidence for WS was of 0.23 per million births. Median age at the last visit was 29 years. Three pedigrees encompassing seven patients and the fetus displayed autosomal dominant heterozygous mutations of the CXCR4 gene, while one patient presented a wild-type CXCR4 gene. Two subjects exhibited congenital conotruncal heart malformations. In addition to neutropenia and myelokathexis, all patients presented deep monocytopenia and lymphopenia. Seven patients presented repeated bacterial Ears Nose Throat as well as severe bacterial infections that were curable with antibiotics. Four patients with late onset prophylaxis developed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Two patients reported atypical mycobacteria infections which in one case may have been responsible for one patient's death due to liver failure at the age of 40.6 years. HPV-related disease manifested in five subjects and progressed as invasive vulvar carcinoma with a fatal course in one patient at the age of 39.5 years. In addition, two patients developed T cell lymphoma skin cancer and basal cell carcinoma at the age of 38 and 65 years. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous prophylactic anti-infective measures, when started in early childhood, seem to effectively prevent further bacterial infections and the consequent development of COPD. Long-term follow up is needed to evaluate the effect of early anti-HPV targeted prophylaxis on the development of skin and genital warts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Correlating human papillomavirus (HPV) type with the clinical and histopathological features of skin lesions (from genital and nongenital sites) can present a diagnostic challenge.
In this study, HPV infection patterns were correlated with pathology and clinical presentation in lesional and nonlesional body sites from a young patient with a primary T-cell immunodeficiency.
HPV infection was evaluated at both DNA and protein levels by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry.
The patient’s genital lesions were caused exclusively by α-genotypes (high-risk type HPV-51 in the anal and low-risk type HPV-72 in the penile condylomas). The opposite was true for the skin lesions, which were infected by β-genotypes alone (HPV-8 and HPV-24). HPV-24 was the predominant type in terms of viral load, and the only one found in productive areas of infection. The patient had already developed high-grade dysplasia in the anal condyloma-like lesions, and showed areas of early-stage dysplasia in the lesions caused by the β-genotype HPV-24.
The basic origin of the immunodeficiency is not yet defined.
These findings provide proof of principle that both α- and β-genotypes can cause overt dysplastic lesions when immunosurveillance is lost, which is not restricted to epidermodysplasia verruciformis.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 01/2014; · 5.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We initially described the WHIM syndrome based on the combination of Warts, Hypogammaglobulinaemia, Infections and Myelokathexis (neutrophil retention in the bone marrow). Translational research led to the discovery that this rare immunodeficiency disease is caused by a heterozygous mutation in the CXCR4 gene. Recently, Plerixafor has been suggested as a treatment for WHIM syndrome due to its efficacy as a CXCR4 antagonist, closing the translational research loop. In this review, we will focus on the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, diagnosis and possible therapies for this rare entity.
British Journal of Haematology 09/2013; · 4.94 Impact Factor
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