Fiber Bragg grating structures inscribed using 800nm femtosecond laser in single- and multi-core mid-IR glass fibers with their spectral, thermal and strain properties
ABSTRACT Single- and multi-core passive and active germanate and tellurite glass fibers represent a new class of fiber host for in-fiber photonics devices and applications in mid-IR wavelength range, which are in increasing demand. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) structures have been proven as one of the most functional in-fiber devices and have been mass-produced in silicate fibers by UV-inscription for almost countless laser and sensor applications. However, because of the strong UV absorption in germanate and tellurite fibers, FBG structures cannot be produced by UVinscription.
In recent years femtosecond (fs) lasers have been developed for laser machining and microstructuring in a variety of glass fibers and planar substrates. A number of papers have been reported on fabrication of FBGs and long-period gratings in optical fibers and also on the photosensitivity mechanism using 800nm fs lasers.
In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time the fabrication of FBG structures created in passive and active single- and three-core germanate and tellurite glass fibers by using 800nm fs-inscription and phase mask technique.
With a fs peak power intensity in the order of 1011W/cm2, the FBG spectra with 2nd and 3rd order resonances at 1540nm and 1033nm in a single-core germanate glass fiber and 2nd order resonances between ~1694nm and ~1677nm with strengths up to 14dB in all three cores of three-core passive and active tellurite fibers were observed. Thermal and strain properties of the FBGs made in these mid-IR glass fibers were characterized, showing an average temperature responsivity of ~20pm/°C and a strain sensitivity of 1.219±0.003pm/με.