Candida-associated denture stomatitis

SUN-Dipartimento di Discipline Odontostomatologiche, Ortodontiche e Chirurgiche, Università degli Studi di Foggia, Foggia, Italy.
Medicina oral, patologia oral y cirugia bucal (Impact Factor: 1.17). 03/2011; 16(2):e139-43. DOI: 10.4317/medoral.16.e139
Source: PubMed


Candida albicans is a dimorphic yeast strongly gram positive able to live as normal commensal organism in the oral cavity of healthy people. It is the yeast more frequently isolated in the oral cavity. Under local and systemic factors related to the host conditions, it becomes virulent and responsible of oral diseases known as oral candidiasis. It has been shown that the presence of denture is a predisposing factor to the onset of pathologies related to C. albicans. Clinical studies have shown that C. albicans is not only able to adhere to the mucous surfaces, but also to stick to the acrylic resins of the dental prostheses. Both the plaque accumulated on the denture and the poor oral hygiene contribute to the virulence of Candida, offering the clinical picture of Candida-associated denture stomatitis. The therapeutic strategies currently adopted in the clinical practice to overcome these fungal infections provide for the use of topical and/or systemic antifungal and topical antiseptics and disinfectants, the irradiation with microwaves and the accurate mechanical removal of the bacterial plaque from the denture surfaces and from the underlying mucosa. A correct oral hygiene is important for the control of the bacterial biofilm present on the denture and on the oral mucosa and it is the fundamental base for the prophylaxis and the therapy of the Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

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    • "Recently, rate of systemic fungal infection caused by Candida species has risen up dramatically due to an increase in immunocompromised hosts (AIDS), hematologic disorders, malignancies and biologic resistance to common antibiotics. Therapeutic strategies against fungal infections are based on topical and systemic antifungal agents [24]. Antifungal drugs are cytotoxic and susceptibility of some Candida species to these drugs is reducing. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Candida species are opportunistic fungi, among which, Candida albicans is the most important species responsible for infections in immunocompromised patients with invasive fungal disease. Resistance of Candida species to antifungal drugs has led scientists to pay more attention to traditional medicine herbs. Due to the limitations in the treatment of fungal diseases such as shortages, high prices, antifungal side effects and drug resistance or reduced susceptibility to fungal drugs we decided to study the antifungal effects of herbal extracts of Syzygium aromaticum and Punica granatum. Methods: Twenty-one isolates of oral C. albicans in patients with denture stomatitis referred to prosthesis department, Dental faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were prepared and cultured. Plant extracts were prepared from the herbs market. Tests on patient samples and standard strains 5027ATCC (PTCC10231) yeast C. albicans were performed via well diffusion method. In addition, nystatin and methanol were used as positive and negative control, respectively. Finally, the antifungal effect of extracts using Statistical Repeated measurement ANOVA test was investigated. Results: Both S. aromaticum and P. granatum showed noticeable antifungal activity in well method. Syzygium aromaticum showed better anti candida activity than nystatin (P<0.001). Conclusion: Due to increasing problems with fungal diseases, these findings suggest that the plant extracts of S. aromaticum and P. granatum showed good antifungal effects (P-value<0.001). S. aromaticum (inhibition zone diameter: 29.62) showed better antifungal effects than nystatin (inhibition zone diameter: 28.48).
    Journal de Mycologie Médicale/Journal of Medical Mycology 10/2014; 24(4). DOI:10.1016/j.mycmed.2014.07.001 · 0.57 Impact Factor
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    • "Candida spp. is one of the main causative organisms of denture-induced stomatitis, which is primarily due to its ability to adhere and form biofilms on oral cavity tissues and denture surfaces, as well as due to its resistance to antifungal agents [1-4]. This biofilm grows extensively on acrylic resin denture material and its effective removal is a significant challenge by both chemical and mechanical methods [2-5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that the use of denture cleansers can reduce Candida albicans biofilm accumulation; however, the efficacy of citric acid denture cleansers is uncertain. In addition, the long-term efficacy of this denture cleanser is not well established, and their effect on residual biofilms is unknown. This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy of citric acid denture cleanser treatment on C. albicans biofilm recolonization on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surface. C. albicans biofilms were developed for 72 h on PMMA resin specimens (n = 168), which were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 cleansing treatments (CTs) overnight (8 h). CTs included purified water as a control (CTC) and two experimental groups that used either a 1:5 dilution of citric acid denture cleanser (CT5) or a 1:8 dilution of citric acid denture cleanser (CT8). Residual biofilms adhering to the specimens were collected and quantified at two time points: immediately after CTs (ICT) and after cleaning and residual biofilm recolonization (RT). Residual biofilms were analyzed by quantifying the viable cells (CFU/mL), and biofilm architecture was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Denture cleanser treatments and evaluation periods were considered study factors. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test (α = 0.05). Immediately after treatments, citric acid denture cleansing solutions (CT5 and CT8) reduced the number of viable cells as compared with the control (p < 0.01). However, after 48 h, both CT groups (CT5 and CT8) showed biofilm recolonization (p < 0.01). Residual biofilm recolonization was also detected by CLSM and SEM analysis, which revealed a higher biomass and average biofilm thickness for the CT8 group (p < 0.01). Citric acid denture cleansers can reduce C. albicans biofilm accumulation and cell viability. However, this CT did not prevent biofilm recolonization.
    BMC Oral Health 06/2014; 14:77. DOI:10.1186/1472-6831-14-77 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    • "Most infections are, however, super�cial, a�ecting the moist mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity and vagina in debilitated individuals. e occurrence of super�cial oral candidosis may arise from a multitude of factors including local immune suppression, reduced salivary �ow, poor oral hygiene, smoking, denture wearing, hormonal imbalances, and nutritional de�ciencies [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]. Furthermore, receipt of broad-spectrum antibiotics has also been implicated with subsequent mucosal and systemic candidal infection [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Human infections involving yeast of the genus Candida often occur in the presence of bacteria, and, as such, it is important to understand how these bacteria influence innate host immunity towards Candida. Dectin-1 is a cell receptor of macrophages for Candida albicans recognition. The aim of this study was to examine dectin-1 expression by monocytes after stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), followed by heat-killed C. albicans (HKC). Freshly isolated human peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) and human monocytes cell line (THP-1) cells expressed low levels of dectin-1. Stimulation with LPS and GM-CSF/IL-4 was found to increase dectin-1 expression in both CD14(+) human PBMC and THP-1 cells. Enhanced dectin-1 expression resulted in increased phagocytosis of Candida. When THP-1 cells were challenged only with HKC, detectable levels of IL-23 were not evident. However, challenge by LPS followed by varying concentrations of HKC resulted in increased IL-23 expression by THP-1 cells in HKC dose-dependent manner. Increased expression of IL-17 by PBMC also occurred after stimulation with Candida and LPS. In conclusion, bacterial LPS induces an enhanced immune response to Candida by immune cells, and this occurs through increasing dectin-1 expression.
    Clinical and Developmental Immunology 01/2013; 2013(3):320168. DOI:10.1155/2013/320168 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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